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Matthew D. Madsen, Michael A. Fidanza, Nicholas S. Barney, Stanley J. Kostka, Turmandakh Badrakh, and Mica F. McMillan

treated with a SFC was compared with untreated seed (control). Seeds were coated in a 14-inch rotary seedcoater (RP14DB; BraceWorks Automation and Electric, Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, Canada). Materials and application rates used to treat seeds with SFC

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Yuan Zhang, Chen Wang, HongZheng Ma, and SiLan Dai

location, amenability to automation, and high throughput genotyping ( Kalia et al., 2011 ). However, the application of SSR markers on the chrysanthemum genome is rather difficult because most of the large-flowered chrysanthemum cultivars are hexaploid

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Katsumi Ohyama, Junichi Yamaguchi, and Ayumi Enjoji

must be reduced by efficiently using human resources and/or by using mechanization or automation. In plant production systems with natural lighting (e.g., fields and greenhouses), efficient use of human resources has been investigated through work

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Olya Rysin and Frank J. Louws

facilities ( Kubota et al., 2008 ; Rivard et al., 2010b ), and may discourage potential users ( Barrett et al., 2012 ). With further developments in rootstock breeding, grafting techniques, and automation, future reductions in transplant prices are possible

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Orlando F. Rodriguez Izaba, Wenjing Guan, and Ariana P. Torres

production of grafted cucumbers may become more affordable with the development of new technologies that increase automation of grafting activities ( Lee et al., 2010 ). Cucumber grafting was conducted by an experienced grafter in the current study; thus, a

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Curt R. Rom, Heather Friedrich, Steven A. Fennimore, Chad E. Finn, Andrew Petran, Russell W. Wallace, Marvin P. Pritts, Gina Fernandez, Carlene A. Chase, Chieri Kubota, and Brad Bergefurd

be harvested by fewer people. There are engineering companies in Ohio that have developed prototype harvesting robots ( Adev Automation, Inc., 2015 ) that may reduce the human component of strawberry harvest in the future. The future increase or

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Cary A. Mitchell

principles but becoming more robust and reliable over time. Two significant technological advancements that have moved environmental controls beyond initial capabilities include computer-based automation ( Jones et al., 1984 ; Takakura et al., 1974 ) and

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Geoffrey Matthew Weaver, Marc W. van Iersel, and Roberto Testezlaf

saline water, tensiometer-controlled subirrigation decreased yield, but improved fruit quality and increased water use efficiency ( Rouphael et al., 2006 ). Another study used this automation with nonsaline water and showed that tensiometer

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Clinton C. Shock and Feng-Xin Wang

maintenance, and adaptability to widely variable wiring lengths. They are easy to read manually or through automation using battery-powered meters or data loggers. Site-specific calibration is usually not required and they are useful on most soil types. Sensor

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Jeff B. Million and Thomas H. Yeager

corresponding outlets on the PLC (Direct Logic D0-DA06 with H0-ECOM100 communications module; Automation Direct, Atlanta, GA) via an Ethernet connection on the local network. We used a universal serial (USB) cellular modem with a static IP address and router