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Matthew D. Madsen, Michael A. Fidanza, Nicholas S. Barney, Stanley J. Kostka, Turmandakh Badrakh, and Mica F. McMillan

treated with a SFC was compared with untreated seed (control). Seeds were coated in a 14-inch rotary seedcoater (RP14DB; BraceWorks Automation and Electric, Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, Canada). Materials and application rates used to treat seeds with SFC

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Katsumi Ohyama, Junichi Yamaguchi, and Ayumi Enjoji

must be reduced by efficiently using human resources and/or by using mechanization or automation. In plant production systems with natural lighting (e.g., fields and greenhouses), efficient use of human resources has been investigated through work

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Yuan Zhang, Chen Wang, HongZheng Ma, and SiLan Dai

location, amenability to automation, and high throughput genotyping ( Kalia et al., 2011 ). However, the application of SSR markers on the chrysanthemum genome is rather difficult because most of the large-flowered chrysanthemum cultivars are hexaploid

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Orlando F. Rodriguez Izaba, Wenjing Guan, and Ariana P. Torres

production of grafted cucumbers may become more affordable with the development of new technologies that increase automation of grafting activities ( Lee et al., 2010 ). Cucumber grafting was conducted by an experienced grafter in the current study; thus, a

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Curt R. Rom, Heather Friedrich, Steven A. Fennimore, Chad E. Finn, Andrew Petran, Russell W. Wallace, Marvin P. Pritts, Gina Fernandez, Carlene A. Chase, Chieri Kubota, and Brad Bergefurd

be harvested by fewer people. There are engineering companies in Ohio that have developed prototype harvesting robots ( Adev Automation, Inc., 2015 ) that may reduce the human component of strawberry harvest in the future. The future increase or

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Clinton C. Shock and Feng-Xin Wang

maintenance, and adaptability to widely variable wiring lengths. They are easy to read manually or through automation using battery-powered meters or data loggers. Site-specific calibration is usually not required and they are useful on most soil types. Sensor

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Geoffrey Matthew Weaver, Marc W. van Iersel, and Roberto Testezlaf

saline water, tensiometer-controlled subirrigation decreased yield, but improved fruit quality and increased water use efficiency ( Rouphael et al., 2006 ). Another study used this automation with nonsaline water and showed that tensiometer

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Seth D. Wannemuehler, James J. Luby, Chengyan Yue, David S. Bedford, R. Karina Gallardo, and Vicki A. McCracken

(i.e., lower reagent costs, more automation, or more efficient workers, etc.), ranging from 10%, 25%, and 50% cost reduction based on breeder inputs The second sensitivity analysis explored the impacts of reduced labor inputs for maintaining seedling

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Meltem Bayraktar

subcultured at short intervals. Agar products are expensive, making automation difficult and cleaning agar out of small culture containers requires intense labor. Moreover, the filling, cleaning, and handling of a large number of small containers constitute

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Sue K. Dove, and Marc W. van Iersel

labor ( USDA, 2010 ), and technological innovations, which reduce labor dependency, can help growers stay competitive. Automation can be achieved using technologies such as robots, sensors, and computer-controlled systems, which may also improve plant