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Camilo Escalante-Magaña, Luis F. Aguilar-Caamal, Ileana Echevarría-Machado, Fátima Medina-Lara, Lucila Sánchez Cach, and Manuel Martínez-Estévez

Water stress is the main factor responsible for decreased productivity, which affects the growth and development of crops. Plants respond to stress by accumulating compatible solutes, which have a key role in osmotic adjustment, thereby resulting in osmoprotection of the plants. The loss of water can increase the concentration of compatible osmolytes and molecules that regulate the plant metabolism. These solutes can be metabolized as sugars (sucrose, fructose, trehalosa), amino acids (proline), an amphoteric quaternary amine (glycine betaine), and other low-molecular-weight metabolites. However, among all these compatible solutes, proline and glycine betaine occur the most. Proline is an amino acid that can accumulate in low concentrations under optimal conditions; however, stress conditions contribute to its increased content. Few data are available regarding the levels of endogenous glycine betaine on Solanaceae, which is considered a nonaccumulator under water deficit conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the role of compatible osmolytes, glycine betaine and proline, in Capsicum sp. plants under different water deficit conditions. In this study, the presence of endogenous levels of proline and glycine betaine in two species of pepper (Capsicum chinense var. Genesis and Rex and Capsicum annuum var. Padron) were found. The concentration levels of proline were 362, 292, and 246 μmol·g−1 DW for Genesis, Rex and Padron respectively, and irrigation conditions (rehydration) of proline levels increased to 381, 395, and 383 μmol·g−1 DW at 21 days. However, glycine betaine levels were 30–70 μmol·g−1 DW. The relative water content, electrolyte leakage, and soil water potential were also analyzed; therefore, the information suggests that proline contributes better to tolerance to water deficit in the genus Capsicum after 14 days of water deficit treatment. It seems that the contribution of glycine betaine is less effective than that of proline; therefore, it does not have an important role in osmotic adjustment.

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Robert Lawrence Jarret and Terry Berke

.E. Bianchetti, L.De.Bem 2005 Three new species of Capsicum (Solanaceae) and a key to the wild species from Brazil Syst. Bot. 30 863 871 Bosland, P.W. Bailey, A.T. Iglesias-Olivas, J. 1996 Capsicum

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Robert L. Jarret

Solanaceae] north of Colombia: A resume Baileya 19 93 105 DeWitt, D. Bosland, P.W. 1996 Peppers of the world: An identification guide Ten Speed Press Berkeley, Calif Eshbaugh, W.H. 1968 A

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Robert L. Jarret, Elizabeth Baldwin, Brian Perkins, Rod Bushway, and Kelly Guthrie

Capsicum frutescens L. is one of the five cultivated species in the genus Capsicum (Solanaceae) ( Heiser and Pickersgill, 1969 ) and is closely related to C. chinense Jacq. ( Baral and Bosland, 2004 ; Eshbaugh, 1976 ). Before Columbus, the

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Robert L. Jarret, Gloria E. Barboza, Fabiane Rabelo da Costa Batista, Terry Berke, Yu-Yu Chou, Amanda Hulse-Kemp, Neftali Ochoa-Alejo, Pasquale Tripodi, Aniko Veres, Carolina Carrizo Garcia, Gabor Csillery, Yung-Kuang Huang, Erzsebet Kiss, Zsofia Kovacs, Mihaly Kondrak, Magda Lisette Arce-Rodriguez, Marisel A. Scaldaferro, and Antal Szoke

a result of the many published studies on the genus’ systematics, karyology, reproductive biology, and phylogeny. In the phylogenetic reconstructions of Solanaceae by Olmstead et al. (2008) and Särkinen et al. (2013) , Capsicum and its sister

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Xinwang Zhang, Ikuo Nakamura, and Masahiro Mii

. Literature Cited Ando, T. 1996 Distribution of Petunia axillaris (Solanaceae) and its new subspecies in Argrentina and Bolivia Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 47 19 30 Ando, T. Kokubun, H. Watanabe, H

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Gal Sapir, Raphael A. Stern, Martin Goldway, and Sharoni Shafir

, carries the S -RNase-mediated gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system. This system was first identified in Solanaceae ( Anderson et al., 1986 ) and later in Rosaceae ( Sassa et al., 1992 ) and in Scrophulariaceae ( Xue et al., 1996

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Nahla V. Bassil and Gayle M. Volk

Solanaceae and Rosaceae, respectively, that have sought to use standardized recording methods across laboratories and locations to document germplasm performance. David Rudell presented “Standardized postharvest quality and biochemical phenotyping for precise

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Thibault Nordey, Elias Shem, and Joel Huat

increasingly worldwide on Solanaceae and cucurbit crops ( Kubota et al., 2008 ; Lee et al., 2010 ). The merits of vegetable grafting for increasing resistance to abiotic and biotic stress have been discussed in several recent reviews, which stressed its

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Marissa Moses and Pathmanathan Umaharan

reference to the fruit’s pungency ( Weiss, 2002 ). Capsicum (Solanaceae family) consists of 33 accepted wild species and five domesticated species ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2012 ): C. annuum (chile and sweet pepper types), C. chinense (habanero