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H. B. Pemberton, M. L. Brenner, and H. F. Wilkins


Individual flowers from Rhododendron L. ‘Prize’ inflorescences were used at various stages of development for quantitative analysis of endogenous free abscisic acid (ABA) content by gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture detection. A decrease of endogenous ABA levels was observed in bud scale, petal, and gynoecium tissue during 6 weeks of cold treatment (9°C) given for release of floral bud dormancy. However, plants which received no cold treatment flowered as rapidly as plants exposed to 6 weeks of 9°. Therefore, a relationship between endogenous ABA levels and the capacity of azalea floral buds for continued development after a cold treatment could not be shown. Regression models of endogenous ABA content on respective morphological measurements of flower bud parts were computed to illustrate the relationship between destructive hormonal determinations and defined morphological changes over time.

Free access

Cary Pirone, Jodie V. Johnson, J. Martin E. Quirke, Horacio A. Priestap, and David Lee

, a close relative of S. reginae ( Pirone et al., 2009 ). Bilirubin was previously known in the animal kingdom where it is produced as a breakdown product of heme. Preliminary high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet

Free access

Carolyn E. Lister, Jane E. Lancaster, and John R.L. Walker

We thank K. Sutton for the HPLC analysis. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate this fact.

Free access

David E. Kopsell, William M. Randle, and Mark A. Eiteman

Onion (Allium cepa L.) pungency changes during storage. To better understand these flavor changes, seven onion cultivars representing different storage duration, photoperiodic requirement, and flavor intensity were greenhouse grown and the bulbs stored for 3 or 6 months at 5±3 °C, 0.8 to 1.1 kPa vapor pressure deficit. Bulbs were evaluated using high-pressure liquid chromatography quantification for changes in S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) flavor precursors and γ-glutamyl peptide (γ-GP) biosynthetic intermediates before storage and monthly thereafter. Before and during storage, cultivars differed in total ACSO, (+) S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (MCSO), trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO), (+) propyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PCSO), S-2 carboxypropyl glutathione (2-CARB), and γ-L-glutamyl-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (γGPECSO) concentration. During storage MCSO generally decreased while PRENCSO increased in concentration for most cultivars. The linear increase in PRENCSO concentration during storage was accompanied by a linear decrease in γGPECSO concentration. While not measured in this study, these trends indicate γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity throughout bulb storage. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase was previously reported to be active only in the later stages of bulb storage or during bulb sprouting. Changes in ACSO and γ-GP compounds during storage did not follow previously reported changes during storage for enzymatically formed pyruvic acid (EPY) for these cultivars. To better understand what causes flavor changes in onions during storage, future investigations should include analysis of the enzymes involved in flavor development and ACSO hydrolysis products.

Free access

William M. Randle, Jane E. Lancaster, Martin L. Shaw, Kevin H. Sutton, Rob L. Hay, and Mark L. Bussard

Three onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars were grown to maturity at five S fertility levels and analyzed for S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) flavor precursors, γ-glutamyl peptide (γ-GP) intermediates, bulb S, pyruvic acid, and soluble solids content. ACSO concentration and composition changed with S fertility, and the response was cultivar dependent. At S treatments that induced S deficiency symptoms during active bulbing, (+)S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was the dominant flavor precursor, and the flavor pathway was a strong sink for available S. As S fertility increased to luxuriant levels, trans(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) became the dominant ACSO. (+)S-propyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was found in low concentration relative to total ACSO at all S fertility treatments. With low S fertility, S rapidly was metabolized and low γ-GP concentrations were detected. As S fertility increased, γ-GP increased, especially γ-L-glutamyl-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, the penultimate compound leading to ACSO synthesis. Nearly 95% of the total bulb S could be accounted for in the measured S compounds at low S fertility. However, at the highest S treatment, only 40 % of the total bulb S could be attributed to the ACSO and γ-GP, indicating that other S compounds were significant S reservoirs in onions. Concentrations of enzymatically produced pyruvic acid (EPY) were most closely related to PRENCSO concentrations. Understanding the dynamics of flavor accumulation in onion and other vegetable Alliums will become increasing important as the food and phytomedicinal industries move toward greater product standardization and characterization.

Free access

Chen-Yi Hung, John R. Murray, Sarah M. Ohmann, and Cindy B.S. Tong

HPLC analyses, and Alan G. Smith for advice and the use of his lab space. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely

Free access

Ninghang Wang, Chao Zhang, Sainan Bian, Pengjie Chang, Lingjuan Xuan, Lijie Fan, Qin Yu, Zhigao Liu, Cuihua Gu, Shouzhou Zhang, Yaling Wang, and Yamei Shen

typical species and four corresponding cultivars, were investigated to analyze their flavonoids by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) as well as HPLC with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (HPLC

Free access

Ni Jia, Qing-Yan Shu, Dan-Hua Wang, Liang-Sheng Wang, Zheng-An Liu, Hong-Xu Ren, Yan-Jun Xu, Dai-Ke Tian, and Kenneth Michael Tilt

objective of our study was to identify and characterize the anthocyanins in herbaceous peony species from different regions of the world using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection in tandem with electrospray

Open access

Yi Gong, Ronald B. Pegg, Adrian L. Kerrihard, Brad E. Lewis, and Richard J. Heerema

Technology (Athens), vacuum packed, and stored at −80 °C until analyzed. Extraction of phenolic compounds (as lyophilized hydrophilic extracts). Before all analyses [TPC, hydrophilic-oxygen radical absorbing capacity (H-ORAC FL ), and HPLC], a lyophilized

Free access

Kelechi Ogbuji, Gloria S. McCutcheon, Alvin M. Simmons, Maurice E. Snook, Howard F. Harrison, and Amnon Levi

, NY) equipped with a 6-mm diameter sawtooth grinder type of tissue cutter. The solutions were filtered through 0.45-μm nylon-66 filters in preparation for HPLC analysis. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Extracts were analyzed once by