Search Results

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 151 items for :

  • " Tagetes erecta " x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

Carl E. Niedziela Jr., Stephen A. Emerson, and Guochen Yang

Plug seedlings of Tagetes erecta L. `Gold Coin Mix' were planted in four production systems (harvest lugs, lay-flat bags, pots, and polystyrene trays) on 5 May 2005. Production systems were randomized in a Latin-square design with four replications of each system. Each treatment plot was 0.7 m × 1.1 m. Planting density was 31 plants/m2. The harvest lugs were 55 cm × 37 cm × 16 cm. The lay-flat bags were 114 cm × 30 cm × 3 cm. The pots were 25-cm bulb pans. The polystyrene trays were 67 × 34 × 5 cm and contained 32 square cells. All of the containers were filled with the same tobacco germination media. The plants in the harvest lugs, lay-flat bags, and pots were irrigated on alternate days with 150 mg·kg-1 N from 20N–4.4P–16.6K. The plants in the polystyrene trays were floated on a solution of 150 mg·kg-1 N from 20N–4.4P–16.6K. Float solutions were monitored and adjusted weekly for volume and fertilizer concentration. Individual stems were harvested at the appropriate stage of development for market. The fresh weight, stem length, and dry weight of individual stems were recorded. The rate of growth and maturation differed between production systems and locations in the greenhouse. Detailed results will be presented.

Free access

Jonathan M. Frantz*, Dharmalingam S. Pitchay, James C. Locke, and Charles Krause

Silica (Si) is not considered to be an essential plant nutrient because without it, most plants can be grown from seed to seed without its presence. However, many investigations have shown a positive growth effect if Si is present, including increased dry weight, increased yield, enhanced pollination, and most commonly, increased disease resistance, which leads to its official designation as a beneficial nutrient. Surprisingly, some effects, such as reduced incidence of micronutrient toxicity, appear to occur even if Si is not taken up in appreciable amounts. The literature results must be interpreted with care, however, because many of the benefits can be obtained with the counterion of the Si supplied to the plant. Determining a potential benefit from Si could be a large benefit to greenhouse plant producers because more production is using soilless media that are devoid of Si. Therefore, Si must be supplied either as a foliar spray or nutrient solution amendment. We investigated adding Si to New Guinea Impatiens (Impatiens hawkeri Bull), marigold (Tagetes erecta), pansy (Viola wittrockiana), spreading petunia (Petunia hybridia), geranium (Pelargonium spp.), and orchid (Phalaenopsis spp.). Using SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and ICP analysis, Si content and location was determined. This information and other growth characteristics will be used as a first step in determining the likelihood of using Si as a beneficial element in greenhouse fertilizer solutions for higher quality bedding plants with fewer agrochemical inputs.

Free access

David A Gilbertz

Seven to 9 cvs each of Begonia semperflorens, Tagetes erecta, T. patula, and Petunia hybrida (grandiflora and multiflora types) were sown into seedling trays. One to 3 weeks after transplanting to flats (75 cm3/cell), paclobutrazol (PB) was sprayed at concentrations of 10 (begonia), 60 (marigold) or 100 (petunia) mg liter-1 at a 200 ml m-2 rate. Uniconazole (UC) was applied at one-half the PB concentrations. Plant height was measured before planting in the field May 17 and monthly through July. Species were analyzed separately and generally, there were no cultivar by triazole interactions. During the greenhouse phase, the triazoles controlled height of both marigold species compared to control, but in July the PB and UC treated plants were 100 and 91%, respectively, of control plant height. Flowering was delayed up to 4 days for UC treated T. patula plants. Height of triazole-treated petunias was 60-67% of control height during the greenhouse phase and 84-95% after 2 months in the field. Begonia height was reduced by triazoles during both phases. After 2 months in the field, PB and UC treated begonias were 72 and 44%, respectively, of control plant height.

Free access

Jillene R. Summers, Gail R. Nonnecke, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Richard C. Schultz, and Thomas M. Isenhart

Improving soil quality and suppressing weeds are two challenges facing strawberry growers. Cover crops, such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense), have been used in rotation with strawberry in the Midwest. The objective of the field study was to investigate the effects of various cover crops on soil quality and weed populations for strawberry production. The experiment was established in 1996 at the Iowa State Univ. Horticulture Station, Ames, in plots that previously were planted continuously in strawberry for 10 years. Nine treatments were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Treatments included cover crops of Indian grass (Sorghastrum avenaceum), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), marigold (Tagetes erecta `Crackerjack'), sorghum-sudangrass, perennial ryegrass, strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa `Honeoye'), and bare soil (control). Data from 1998 showed that both annual and perennial cover crops were established more readily (higher treatment-plant populations and less weed populations) than in 1997. Water infiltration rates were highest in bare soil plots and lowest in P. virgatum plots. Bare soil plots and S. sudanense plots had the lowest percent soil moisture.

Free access

Lynn Burney and Richard L. Harkess

Maintaining annual color throughout the long summer season in warm temperate regions has become an interest to landscapers and nursery operators. Some colorscaping companies have begun implementing a second summer planting season. There is little information available concerning suitable cultivars and species of bedding plants for establishment in late summer. This study examined plant establishment in two container sizes and three dates of transplanting to determine late season establishment in Starkville, Miss. (33°27' latitude, 88°49' longitude). Seeds of 27 different cultivars were grown in plug flats in the greenhouse and transplanted into jumbo 606 or 10-cm square containers. The plants were grown in the greenhouse until transplanting on 16 Aug., 30 Aug., or 13 Sept. 1996. The plants were transplanted into plots containing nine plants with three replications per planting date. The plants were spaced on 20-cm centers among and between plots. The earliest two plantings resulted in better plant establishment and floral display. Some of the cultivars and species were more tolerant of the late season temperature and humidity establishing and providing a good color display from 6 weeks after transplanting until frost, 2 Nov. 1996. Cultivars that performed well included: Impatiens wallerana `Deco Crystal', `Expo Lavender Blush', `Dazzler Salmon', Begonia semperflorens `Varsity Bronze Scarlet', Zinnia `White Pinwheel', Tagetes erecta `Marvel Gold', and Tagetes patula `Bonanza Harmony'. Cultivars that did not establish well under these conditions included: Verbena hybrida `Romance Pink' and Salvia splendens `Salsa Salmon'. The container size did not significantly affect plant establishment.

Free access

Douglas A. Cox

`First Lady' marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) and `Selenia' New Guinea impatiens (NGI; Impatiens sp. hyb.) were grown in solution culture for 60 days. At 10-day intervals, plants received low N for 10 days (marigold) or 20 days (NGI). Low-N treatment was 5% and 10% of the control, respectively, for marigold and NGI. After each low-N period, FW of treated and control plants was measured and N uptake by the controls was determined by solution depletion. Nitrogen uptake by marigold reached a peak 40 days after planting, and then decreased somewhat during the final 20 days of the experiment. In contrast, N uptake by NGI increased gradually after planting, reaching its highest level at the end of the experiment (60 days). Low-N periods 10 to 20 and 20 to 30 days after planting reduced the FW of marigold about 35% vs. control. FW reductions resulting from earlier or later low-N periods were much smaller or did not occur. Reductions in NGI FW resulted from low-N periods 20 to 40, 30 to 50, and 50 to 60 days after planting. While short periods of low N reduced the growth of both species, these reductions were desirable and not excessive, and no foliar symptoms of N deficiency were apparent at any time. Results of these experiments have implications for efficient fertilizer use and growth suppression using short periods of low nutrition.

Free access

John M. Dole

Three cut-flower species, Ageratum houstonianum `Tall Blue Horizon', Antirrhinum majus `Spring Giants Mix', and Helianthus annuus `Sunrich Orange' were grown in 806, 1801, or 1001 bedding plants flats resulting in 32 (85), 86 (280), and 156 (620) cm2 (mililiter medium)/plant, respectively. Plants were sown Sept. 1997 (fall), Dec. 1997 (winter), or Mar. 1998 (spring). Increasing area per plant decreased number of stems harvested but increased percent of stems harvested for all species. Increasing area per plant increased stem length and selling price for Antirrhinum and Helianthus; no significant difference was noted for Ageratum. Days to anthesis decreased with later planting for Antirrhinum and Helianthus; however, for Ageratum winter planting had the longest crop time and spring planting the shortest. Gross profit per square meter and square meter per week increased with decreasing area per plant for Ageratum and Helianthus; no significant difference was noted for Ageratum. Gross profit per square meter per week increased with later planting for all species. With all species 806 flats or spring planting required frequent irrigation, which would best be supplied by an automated irrigation system. Experiment was repeated in 1998/1999 using Carthamus tinctorius `Lasting Yellow', Celosia argentea `Chief Mix', Cosmos bipinnatus `Early Wonder', Helianthus annuus `Sunbright, Tagetes erecta `Promise Orange' and `Promise Yellow', and Zinnia elegans `Giant Deep Red' and `Oklahoma Mix'.

Free access

Joseph P. Albano and Donald J. Merhaut

The objectives of the study were to determine effects of iron (Fe) source on plant growth, plant nutrition, substrate chemistry, and runoff chemistry. Iron source (FS) treatments consisted of Fe-aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) complexones iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA), iron [S, S′]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (FeEDDS), iron diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (FeDTPA), and iron ethylenediaminedi(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (FeEDDHA) and non-chelated iron sulfate (FeSO4) added to a base nutrient solution at the rate of 1 mg·L−1 Fe final concentration. Marigold (Tagetes erecta) ‘First Lady' was grown in peat-based media fertilized with FS treatments over a period of 22 d. Iron source treatments were nonsignificant for foliar Fe, manganese (Mn), or zinc (Zn) averaging 162 μg·g−1 Fe, 228 μg·g−1 Mn, and 35 μg·g−1 Zn but were significant for foliar copper (Cu). Main effect of FS on pour-through (PT) leachate pH was statistically different but not practically significant, averaging 6.42. The FeDTPA treatment resulted in higher levels of Cu, Fe, and Zn in PT extracts. Leachate-runoff (LR) was collected and analyzed over the course of the study. Results of LR were similar to PT with levels of Cu, Fe, and Zn for the FeDTPA treatment resulting in higher concentrations of these metals. In both PT and LR, the highest concentration of Mn was associated with the FeEDTA treatment. Spectrophotometer analyses of PT and LR leachates determined the presence of all Fe chelates tested in those solutions.

Free access

Charles L. Rohwer and John E. Erwin

Jasmonates are a class of plant hormones involved in plant defense and stress responses. For example, jasmonate-induced defense responses in Lycopersicon esculentum include increases in activity of proteinase inhibitors, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases. As part of our efforts to reduce or control greenhouse pest infestations, we hypothesized that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) could induce these biochemical changes in common greenhouse crops. We studied Impatiens wallerana `Super Elfin Pink', L. esculentum `Big Boy', Petunia ×hybrida `Bravo Lavendar', Viola ×wittrockiana `Imperial Beaconsfield', Coleus ×hybridus `Wizard Jade', Nicotiana alata `Saratoga Lime', Pelargonium ×hortorum `Pinto Pink', and Tagetes erecta `Antigua Primrose'. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity was studied in the first four species, and proteinase inhibitors were studied in all eight. We sprayed plants with 0, 5 × 10-6, or 10-4 molar MeJA and made measurements after 24 hours. We detected a small increase in polyphenol oxidase activity of plants treated with 10-4 molar MeJA; 5 × 10-6 molar had no effect, and L. esculentum had the highest polyphenol oxidase activity. Peroxidase activity was not affected by MeJA. I. wallerana had the highest peroxidase activity, L. esculentum and V. ×wittrockiana had the lowest. 5 × 10-6 molar MeJA increased proteinase inhibitor activity in most species, and 10-4 molar increased activity in every species except P. ×hortorum.

Free access

Marc W. van Iersel and Krishna S. Nemali

We examined the effectiveness of an elevated capillary mat system to maintain constant and different moisture levels in the growing medium and verify the potential of drought stress conditioning in producing small and compact bedding plants. To differentiate between plant height and compactness, we determined compactness as the leaf area or dry mass per unit stem length. Marigold `Queen Sophia' (Tagetes erecta L.) seedlings were grown in square, 9-cm-wide, 10-cm-high containers filled with a soilless growing medium. A capillary mat was laid on top of a greenhouse bench which was raised by 15 cm on one side compared to the other side to create an elevation effect. Seedlings were subirrigated by immersing the low end of the capillary mat in a reservoir of water. The amount of water moving to the higher end of the mat progressively decreased with elevation. The moisture content in the growing medium averaged from 26 to 294 mL/pot at different elevations. Regression analysis indicated that growth parameters including, shoot dry mass, leaf area, leaf number, and plant height decreased linearly with decreasing soil moisture content in the growing medium. Of all the measured growth parameters, plant height was found to be least sensitive to decreasing moisture content in the growing medium. Plants in high moisture treatments had more dry mass and leaf area per unit length of the stem compared to those in low moisture treatments. Our results indicate that drought stress can produce small, but not truly compact bedding plants.