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Kari L. Hugie and Eric Watkins

quality when grown as turfgrass, and there are great differences in the amount of plant breeding effort that has been focused on them. Hard fescue, while underused, has been the focus of some breeding efforts since the middle of the 20th century ( Bonos

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Aneta K. Studzinska, David S. Gardner, James D. Metzger, David Shetlar, Robert Harriman, and T. Karl Danneberger

Creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera L.) is a turfgrass species highly suitable for use on golf course tees, greens, and fairways. As a result of its ability to provide exceptional quality playing surfaces when mowed short, it is used

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David Jespersen and Brian Schwartz

The genus Zoysia contains several important turfgrass species valued for their high turfgrass quality. These species include japanese lawngrass ( Zoysia japonica S.), and manila grass ( Zoysia matrella L.), which are able to form interspecific

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Victoria A. Caceres, Cale A. Bigelow, and Douglas S. Richmond

much as 15% ( Mangiafico and Guillard, 2006 ). To measure turfgrass quality, turfgrass scientists and other professionals usually employ a set of subjective measures aimed at capturing a broad set of visual and/or functional turfgrass characteristics

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Baoxin Chang, Benjamin Wherley, Jacqueline Aitkenhead-Peterson, Nadezda Ojeda, Charles Fontanier, and Philip Dwyer

Miracle-Gro, Marysville, OH) and incorporated with 0.3-cm irrigation. Table 1. Application date of fertilizer and wetting agent for 2015 and 2016. Measurements for turfgrass quality, turfgrass coverage, and soil volumetric water content were recorded on

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Edward J. Nangle, David S. Gardner, James D. Metzger, John R. Street, and T. Karl Danneberger

positive quality effects on turfgrass grown under low PPF conditions ( Bunnell et al., 2005 ; Goss et al., 2002 ; Qian and Engelke, 1999 ; Steinke and Stier, 2003 ). The impact of TE under altered R:FR conditions has been tested only once to date by

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Walter F. Ray, Geno A. Picchioni, Dawn M. VanLeeuwen, and Ryan M. Goss

turfgrass quality were recorded from Mar. 1997 to Nov. 1997 using the methods outlined by Dunn et al. (1994) and Turgeon (1991) . Generally similar results were obtained for all rating criteria; thus, only overall turfgrass quality ratings are presented

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Donald M. Vietor, Ronnie W. Schnell, Tony L. Provin, Richard H. White, and Clyde L. Munster

Easton, Z.M. Petrovic, A.M. 2004 Fertilizer source effect on ground and surface water quality in drainage from turfgrass J. Environ. Qual. 33 645 655 Garling, D.C. Boehm, M.J. 2001 Temporal effects

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Huisen Zhu and Deying Li

calculated from the difference between the fumigated and nonfumigated samples and multiplying the difference by 2.64 ( Vance et al., 1987 ). Turf visual quality was evaluated using a 1 to 9 scale ( National Turfgrass Evaluation Program, 2000 ), where 9 is the

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Filippo Lulli, Claudia de Bertoldi, Roberto Armeni, Lorenzo Guglielminetti, and Marco Volterrani

construction methods for association football pitches. II. Ground cover, playing quality and cost implications J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 67 53 65 Baker, S.W. Canaway, P.M. 1993 Concepts of playing quality: Criteria and measurement Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 7