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Ajay Nair, Mathieu Ngouajio, and John Biernbaum

To optimize the production system, most vegetable crops are established from greenhouse-grown transplants. Transplant production is a critical phase that significantly affects growth and development of the crop in the field ( Dufault, 1998 ). Some

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Charles S. Vavrina and Michael D. Orzolek

As early as 1929, university scientists began the quest to determine the ideal age at which to transplant tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Investigations have included seedlings of 2 to 15 weeks of age produced in wood, peat, plastic, or Styrofoam containers. Early researchers often omitted descriptions of soil mixes and nutrient regimes, and used a wide variety of container types. Later investigators were inclined to use commercial soilless mixes, well-defined nutrient regimes, and polystyrene trays. Pioneers of transplant age research tended to use plants of 7 weeks and older, whereas work within the past 30 years has concentrated on younger plants. Many researchers drew conclusions after only 1 year of experimentation, while others found that results varied across years. Prior to the 1980s, virtually all studies were initiated and conducted in areas far from the thriving transplant industry established in the southeastern United States. Southern-grown transplants often were not in cluded for comparison, and few studies were implemented using plants grown under commercial conditions. After more than 60 years of transplant age research, it appears that transplants of 2 to 13 weeks can produce comparable yields, depending on the many factors involved in commercial production.

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Maria A. Macias-Leon and Daniel I. Leskovar

losses in plant population, growers typically increase the seeding density ( Leskovar et al., 2012 ). In some growing regions of the world, especially Mexico, onions are planted using containerized transplants grown previously in greenhouses. It is well

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Sudeep Vyapari, S.M. Scheiber, and E.L. Thralls

at transplant. Arnold and Struve (1989) and Struve (1993) report delayed landscape establishment when transplanting container-grown plants with overly developed (i.e., root-bound) root systems. The most critical factor affecting landscape

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Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada, Lincoln Zotarelli, Vance M. Whitaker, Bielinski M. Santos, and Ixchel Hernandez-Ochoa

in Florida, which makes early season yield an important target for growers ( Bish and Cantliffe, 2002 ; Gilreath et al., 2006 ). In short-day strawberry production, high quality transplants are essential for early fruit yield. The production system

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Bryan J. Peterson, Olivia Sanchez, Stephanie E. Burnett, and Darren J. Hayes

other half of the cuttings were transplanted into 5-inch azalea pots (Kord, Toronto, ON, Canada) containing a commercial peat-based growing medium (Fafard 1-PV; Sun Gro Horticulture, Agawam, MA). After transplant, plants were hand-watered as needed, and

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Alicain S. Carlson and John M. Dole

be transplanted successfully is essential to obtain quality plants and reduce production costs ( Cavins and Dole, 2001 ; van Iersel, 1997 ). Although it may be more economical to leave plants in plug trays for as long as possible before transplanting

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Ming Li and Wei-tang Song

photosynthetic rate measured with this method can be more accurate than that calculated by scaling up the leaf photosynthetic rate ( Ferraz et al., 2016 ). This method has been applied to measure the P n,w of cucumber transplants ( Mun et al., 2011 ), lettuce

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Maegen Lewis, Melanie Stock, Brent Black, Dan Drost, and Xin Dai

growth requirements, snapdragons have strong production potential in the U.S. Intermountain West, and trials in the U.S. Midwest and Southeast help establish baseline transplant dates, harvest timing, and yield. In a field trial in Tennessee (USDA

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Ravneet K. Sandhu, Nathan S. Boyd, Lincoln Zotarelli, Shinsuke Agehara, and Natalia Peres

, such as plastic mulch, drip tape, and fumigation ( Duval, 2005 ). It is classified as mixed, relay, or strip cropping based on the production design and transplanting date ( Rosa-Schleich et al., 2019 ). There are many other advantages of intercropping