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Thomas M. Kon, James R. Schupp, Keith S. Yoder, Leon D. Combs, and Melanie A. Schupp

standardized by style length to estimate pollen tube growth [pollen tube growth = (pollen tube length/style length) × 100]. ‘Gala’. In 2015, a trial was conducted in a commercial orchard of mature ‘Buckeye Gala’/‘M.9 RN 29’. Trees were trained to tall spindle

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Kenneth W. Leonhardt

similar mode of action at the molecular level. Both agents bind to plant microtubules that are involved in chromosome migration. Both agents disrupt mitosis by inhibiting spindle fiber formation at metaphase ( Strachan and Hess, 1983 ), resulting in an

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Yosef Al Shoffe and Christopher B. Watkins

-term storage at 33 °F on reducing CI and bitter pit development in ‘Honeycrisp’ apples during storage. Materials and methods ‘Honeycrisp’ fruit from trees grafted on M.9 rootstock under a high-density tall spindle planting system were harvested in 2016 from two

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Gennaro Fazio, Yizhen Wan, Dariusz Kviklys, Leticia Romero, Richard Adams, David Strickland, and Terence Robinson

.A. Reginato, G.H. 2011b The tall spindle planting system: Principles and performance Acta Hort. 903 571 579 Russo, N.L. Robinson, T.L. Fazio, G. Aldwinckle, H.S. 2007 Field evaluation of 64 apple rootstocks for orchard performance and fire blight resistance

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Whitney J. Garton, Mark Mazzola, Travis R. Alexander, and Carol A. Miles

were staked (bamboo in 2016 and metal in 2017) for support, and managed pursuant to the principles of a tall spindle orchard system. Drip irrigation tape was placed directly on the soil surface, and in 2016, irrigation was applied twice a week for 4 h

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Adam D. Karl, Michael G. Brown, Sihui Ma, Ann Sandbrook, Amanda C. Stewart, Lailiang Cheng, Anna Katharine Mansfield, and Gregory M. Peck

, W.W. 1987 Role of tannins in defending plants against ruminants: Reduction in protein availability Ecology 68 98 107 Robinson, T.L. Hoying, S.A. Reginato, G.H. 2011 The tall spindle planting system: Principles and performance Acta Hort. 903 571 579

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Patrick E. McCullough, Ted Whitwell, Lambert B. McCarty, and Haibo Liu

pyridines commonly used to control summer annual weeds ( Vaughn and Lehnen, 1991 ). DNA herbicides, like pendimethalin, and pyridimine herbicides such as dithiopyr prevent spindle formation during mitosis by binding to tubuilin proteins necessary for

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Sahar Dabirian and Carol A. Miles

together. Immediately after grafting, each tray was placed in a healing chamber (0.9 m wide × 1.7 m long × 0.5 m tall) on a bench in the greenhouse, and the healing regimen described by Miles et al. (2016) was followed and is summarized here. The chamber

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Corina Serban and Lee Kalcsits

trees were planted in 2014, trained to a tall spindle training system with 0.6- × 3.0-m tree spacing (5382 trees/ha), and irrigated using microsprinklers. Horticultural practices and pest management were carried out by the grower using accepted

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Whitney J. Garton, Mark Mazzola, Nairanjana Dasgupta, Travis R. Alexander, and Carol A. Miles

were trained to a tall-spindle trellis system, spaced 6 ft in-row and 14 ft between rows. The diameter of the central leader was ≈0.5 inch in 2015, 0.7 inch in 2016, and 0.8 inch in 2017. Weather data (mean air temperature, relative humidity, total