effects on germination of primed grass seeds J. Range Mgt. 47 196 199 Hsiao, A.I. Quick, W.A. 1985 Wild oats ( Avena fatua L.) seed dormancy as influenced by sodium hypochlorite, moist storage and gibberellin A 3
Michael W. Olszewski and Grant J. Folin
R.G. Linderman and E.A. Davis
pathogens from soil-less media or contaminated containers unless they are confined in rooms such as would be used to fumigate fruit for insect control. Metam sodium, on the other hand, is more easily applied in a liquid form as a drench, thereafter releasing
M.L. Pitts, P.P. David, and S. Riley
Four sweetpotato breeding lines were tested for their sodium tolerance in sand culture. All plants were grown in the greenhouse in sterilized sand and watered daily with a modified half-Hoagland solution (N: K-1:2:4). Four sodium levels (0, 35, 70, and 105 ppm) were applied to the breeding lines in a split-plot design with four replications. Soil leachate was collected every 2 days and was measured for P, Na concentration, and electrical conductivity. Plants were grown for 60 days. Preliminary results from analysis of soil leachate showed an increase in EC as sodium concentration increased 5 days after treatments were initiated. Potassium and Na concentration varied with each breeding line tested. Storage root fresh and dry weight were significantly affected by Na levels (i.e., lines tested were tolerant ≤70 ppm Na).
N.C. Yorio, C.L. Mackowiak, R.M. Wheeler, and J.C. Sager
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Norland and Denali) plants were grown under high-pressure sodium (HPS), metal halide (MH), and blue-light-enhanced SON-Agro high-pressure sodium (HPS-S) lamps to study the effects of lamp spectral quality on vegetative growth. All plants were initiated from in vitro nodal cultures and grown hydroponically for 35 days at 300 μmol·m–2·s–1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) with a 12-hour light/12-hour dark photoperiod and matching 20C/16C thermoperiod. `Denali' main stems and internodes were significantly longer under HPS compared to MH, while under HPS-S, lengths were intermediate relative to those under other lamp types, but not significantly different. `Norland' plants showed no significant differences in stem and internode length among lamp types. Total dry weight of `Denali' plants was unaffected by lamp type, but `Norland' plants grown with HPS had significantly higher dry weight than those under either HPS-S or MH. Spectroradiometer measurements from the various lamps verified the manufacturer's claims of a 30% increase in ultraviolet-blue (350 to 450 nm) output from the HPS-S relative to standard HPS lamps. However, the data from `Denali' suggest that at 300 μmol·m–2·s–1 total PPF, the increased blue from HPS-S lamps is still insufficient to consistently maintain short stem growth typical of blue-rich irradiance environments.
C.P. Sharma and Sandhya Singh
Cauliflower [Brassica oleracea (Botrytis Group) cv. Pusi] grown in refined sand with 0.01 normal K supply had lower dry matter and tissue concentration of K than the controls and developed visible symptoms characteristic of K deficiency. Compared with control plants, the laminae of K-deficient plants contained significantly higher concentrations of sugars and nonprotein N and significantly lower concentrations of starch and protein N. However, the midribs of K-deficient leaves contained more protein N than leaves of control plants. Substitution of K by Na resulted in increased Na concentrations in leaves and recovery from the K-deficiency effect on the carbohydrate and N fractions. Maximum response to sodium was found in the intercoastal-lamina of K-deficient plants.
Theo J. Blom and Brian D. Piott
Four freesia cultivars were exposed to 24 hour·day-1 high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting during various stages of their development. Upon emergence, freesia plants were exposed to the following four lighting treatments: 1) ambient; 2) ambient until shoot length was 5 to 8 cm followed by HPS lighting until flowering; 3) HPS lighting until shoot length was 5 to 8 cm followed by ambient lighting; and 4) continuous HPS lighting. Supplemental HPS lighting was provided at 37 μmol·m-2·s-1 at plant level in a glasshouse. Continuous lighting or lighting during flower development hastened flowering but reduced the number of flowering stems per corm, as well as stem length and weight. Lighting during the vegetative and flower initiation periods produced minor effects. The main benefit of supplemental lighting was found in total corm weight.
Derek N. Peacock and Kim E. Hummer
During research to develop a new germination protocol for Rubus being conducted at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, we observed mixed responses to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a seed scarifying agent. For R. parviforus Nutt., scarification with NaOCl resulted in 34% germination. Fewer than 1% of the seedlings showed any negative effects after exposure to 2.6% NaOCl for 24 hours. But in R. ursinus Cham. & Schldl., R. multibracteatus A. Leveille & Vaniot, R. swinhoei Hance, and R. setchuenensis Bureau & Franchet, the percentage of injury observed ranged from 40% to 100%. In these cases, although embryonic tissue did not appear necrotic, the radicle and plumule failed to elongate after emergence. The epicotyl or primary leaves did not develop, and the radicle failed to form root hair. The cotyledons, apparently unaffected, opened and were a healthy green. NaOCl did not kill the embryo, but deterred development of the embryonic axis. As a result of the NaOCl scarification the cotyledons expanded yet the seedlings eventually died.
Jessie M. Godfrey, Louise Ferguson, and Maciej A. Zwieniecki
this time at intervals of ≈4 h in 50-mL Eppendorf tubes. Sodium analysis. The volumes of aqueous samples collected from the cut distal ends of perfused stems were determined by extracting these volumes from outflow containers with a pipette
Pedro Gonzalez, James P. Syvertsen, and Ed Etxeberria
molecular analyses in Arabidopsis ( Shi et al., 2003 ; Zhu, 2000 ) and on determinations of intracellular Na + distribution with Sodium-Green ( Hamaji et al., 2009 ), we hypothesized a higher Na + sequestration in the root vacuoles of the relatively Na
Wesley C. Randall and Roberto G. Lopez
overhead SL ( Oh et al., 2010 ; Randall and Lopez, 2014 ; Sherrard, 2003 ). High-intensity discharge lamps, such as HPS and metal halide lamps, have traditionally been used for SL to increase greenhouse DLI. High-pressure sodium lamps have long been the