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Melody Reed Richards and Larry A. Rupp

(1981) observed rooting on 20% of mound layered and 71% of trench layered 1-year-old maple seedlings. Although trench layering had a higher rooting percentage, it is a very labor intensive propagation technique. Micropropagation of bigtooth maple

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Erin J. Yafuso and Paul R. Fisher

·L −1 at 1 atm and 25 °C. Within the root zone, Van Iersel and Dove (2014) pointed out that in a well-irrigated substrate, the relative humidity is likely to be close to 100%, resulting in reduced partial pressure of oxygen because of water vapor (19

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Hua Q. Zhao, Qing H. He, Li L. Song, Mei F. Hou, and Zhi G. Zhang

cultured × 100), shoot regeneration frequency (explants with shoots/number of explants cultured × 100), and hyperhydricity frequency (explants with hyperhydric shoots/number of explants cultured × 100) were recorded after 6 weeks of culture. Rooting and

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Youping Sun, Donglin Zhang, and John Smagula

reported protocol for mass propagation of inkberry using tissue culture, our evaluation of this procedure includes the study of the effects of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation and rooting. Materials and Methods Plant material and

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Yujie Yang, Donglin Zhang, Zhihui Li, Xiaoling Jin, and Jinying Dong

shoot, cm), number of shoots (>5 mm long), and average shoot length (centimeters) were recorded. Effect of rooting hormone on root induction. Terminal shoots were used to induce roots on 1/4 MS with IBA at 2.07–8.29 µM or NAA (Sigma Chemical Co.) at 2

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Lisa E. Richardson-Calfee, J. Roger Harris, and Jody K. Fanelli

Growth periodicity is generally conceived as a set pattern of growth incited by internal factors and influenced by environmental conditions ( Morrow, 1950 ). The inherent alternation between periods of abundant root and shoot growth and little or

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Ana V. de Souza, José E.B.P. Pinto, Suzan K.V. Bertolucci, Ricardo M. Corrêa, Larissa C. do B. Costa, and William E. Dyer

considerable, owing to the antiinflammatory, anesthetic, and healing effects on bruises, sprains, and insect bites. Vegetative propagation of arnica using cuttings is somewhat troublesome because rooting is difficult. Furthermore, sexual reproduction is

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Naveen Kumar, Fnu Kiran, and Ed Etxeberria

.6 million boxes in 2016, the lowest in the last 50 years ( USDA, 2017 ). After introduction into host leaves, C Las travels from the point of infection to roots causing extensive injury to the fibrous root system in the process ( Graham et al., 2013

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Rui Zhang, Fang-Ren Peng, Pan Yan, Fan Cao, Zhuang-Zhuang Liu, Dong-Liang Le, and Peng-Peng Tan

sold as bare root trees. The root system predominantly consists of a taproot with weak lateral roots during the first year after pecan seed germination. The taproot will penetrate the soil up to 2 m unless stopped by a water table or an impervious layer

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Aekaterini N. Martini, Maria Papafotiou, and Stavros N. Vemmos

, 2009b ). The multiplication of microshoots was successful ( Papafotiou and Martini, 2009a , 2009b ), but their rooting ability was low ( Martini and Papafotiou, 2009 ). Thus, to develop an efficient micropropagation protocol for × M. florentina , the