Zygotic and somatic embryos are purported to follow similar developmental sequences, but few investigations have thoroughly compared the two processes. Developing pods of Cercis canadensis L. (redbud) were collected from trees on the Knoxville campus of the University of Tennessee once or twice per week from 28 March to 8 August 1991. At least 10 ovules/sample date were fixed in FAA to evaluate zygotic embryo ontogeny. A minimum of 40 ovules/sample date were aseptically excised and placed on SH medium supplemented with 9.0 μM 2,4-D and 5 mM ammonium ion to initate somatic embryogenesis. Zygotic and somatic embryos were prepared for histological examination using standard paraffin techniques. Somatic embryos developed primarily from cotyledons and epicotyls of zygotic embryos mat were cultured between 6 June and 19 July. Somatic and zygotic embryos were subtended by multiseriate suspensors and progressed through recognizable globular, cordate and cotyledonary stages of development. Cotyledon morphology was similar for both embryo types. However, many somatic embryos failed to differentiate dome-shaped shoot meristems exhibited by their zygotic counterparts.
L.G. Buckley, E.T. Graham, and R.N. Trigiano
Christopher Catanzaro and Enefiok Ekanem
A community tree planting project was conducted on the border of an urban Nashville, Tenn., neighborhood in Autumn 1994. In Jan. 2000, a written survey was developed to assess residents' perception of this site. Responses were gathered voluntarily and anonymously following a community meeting. Photographs of the site taken before the planting and again recently were available to respondents. Descriptions of the site's appearance prior to planting (turf only) included barren, boring, and lacking character. Comments regarding the site with trees suggest that trees provide cover and shade, are aesthetically pleasing, and represent positive human involvement. The average rating of the site's appearance prior to planting was “fair,” while its recent appearance was rated “very good.” Among three tree species included in the planting, Southern magnolia was strongly preferred over Canadian (Eastern) hemlock and Eastern redbud. Respondents valued magnolia's size, unique flowers and leaves, and evergreen nature. Most respondents did not use the area for any specific purpose. Despite that fact, respondents stated that they benefitted from the soothing aesthetics of the landscaped site, and that the site added value to the neighborhood and implied the qualities of belonging and leadership. An unintended outcome of the survey was its educational aspect. Nearly two-thirds of respondents did not live in the area when this site was landscaped, and most of them were not aware that the neighborhood had conducted the project. Nearly one-half of all respondents expressed interest in additional landscaping at this site or nearby high-visibility, high-use sites.
Changes in foliage temperature with environmental conditions were investigated for use in detecting water stress and scheduling irrigations of woody nursery plants. Midday leaf-minus-air temperature (Tl-Ta) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were monitored seasonally for container-grown shrubs--prostrate juniper, upright juniper and dwarf red-stem dogwood--at open and closed spacings. There was an inverse relationship between Tl-Ta and VPD for all species and spacings but with substantial scatter. Slopes for openand closed-spaced shrubs were not significantly different for any species. As container moisture and predawn leaf water potential declined during a dry-down cycle Tl-Ta increased significantly over well-watered levels for open-spaced plants and closed-spaced dogwood. In a field experiment Tl-Ta and VPD were monitored in young London plane, flowering pear, and redbud with-and-without irrigation. Only irrigated London plane Tl-Ta was inversely related to VPD. Leaves coated with petroleum jelly, however, had Tl-Ta levels consistently greater than uncoated leaves in all species, and non-irrigated Tl-Ta rose to those levels during a mid-summer drought. These results suggest that irrigation of container shrubs can be timed to increases in Tl-Ta with VPD, while comparing coated and non-coated Tl-Ta may be more successful for irrigated field production.
Dewayne L. Ingram and Charles R. Hall
CO 2 e to the GWP for Acer rubrum (red maple) ( Ingram, 2012 ), Picea pungens (blue spruce) ( Ingram, 2013 ), and Cercis canadensis (redbud) ( Ingram and Hall, 2013 ), respectively, from propagation to the nursery gate. Accounting for carbon
Amy N. Wright, Alex X. Niemiera, J. Roger Harris, and Robert D. Wright
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of lime and micronutrient amendments on growth of seedlings of nine container-grown landscape tree species in two pine bark substrates with different pHs. Acer palmatum Thunb. (Japanese maple), Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple), Cercis canadensis L. (redbud), Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood), Cornus kousa Hance. (kousa dogwood), Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (golden-rain tree), Magnolia ×soulangiana Soul.-Bod. `Lennei' (magnolia), Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. (blackgum), and Quercus palustris Müenchh. (pin oak) were grown from seed in two pine bark substrates with different pHs (pH 4.7 and 5.1) (Expt. 1). Preplant amendment treatments for each of two pine (Pinus taeda L.) bark sources were: with and without dolomitic limestone (3.6 kg·m–3) and with and without micronutrients (0.9 kg·m–3), and with and without micronutrients (0.9 kg·m–3), supplied as Micromax. Seedlings were harvested 12 and 19 weeks after seeds were planted, and shoot dry weight and tree height were determined. The same experiment was repeated using two of the nine species from Expt. 1 and pine bark substrates at pH 5.1 and 5.8 (Expt. 2). Seedling shoot dry weight and height were measured 11 weeks after planting. For both experiments, pine bark solutions were extracted using the pour-through method and analyzed for Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Growth of all species in both experiments was greater in micronutrient-amended than in lime-amended bark. In general, adding micronutrients increased nutrient concentrations in the pine bark solution, while adding lime decreased them. Effect of bark type on growth in Expt. 1 was variable; however, in Expt. 2, growth was greater in the low pH bark than in the high pH bark. In general, nutrient concentrations in bark solutions were higher in low pH bark than in high pH bark for both experiments. Under the pH conditions of this experiment, micronutrient additions stimulated growth whereas a lime amendment did not.
Alison A. Stoven*, Hannah M. Mathers, and Daniel K. Struve
A study was conducted to determine if similar quality shade tree liners could be produced using a retractable-roof greenhouse structure versus an outdoor environment. All plants were started in a heated greenhouse on campus in 250 XL-sized containers. The species included Eastern redbud, red oak (both grown from seed) and Autumn Blaze maple and Prairifire crabapple (both grown from rooted cuttings). On 15 Mar. 2003, half the plants remained in the heated greenhouse and the other half were moved to a Cravo retractable-roof structure and placed on heating mats set at 22 °C. In May, all of the plants (retractable and greenhouse) were upshifted into 3-gallon Spin-out® treated containers. Trees in each environment were fertilized with either Osmocote® (20 N, 2.2 P, 6.6 K), nine month release, applied broadcast at 45 g/pot, or with a 100 ppm-N water-soluable fertilizer (21 N, 3.1P, 5.9 K), applied at 0.1 g N/day. All trees received the same irrigation volume (1 L/day). All trees were grown according to nursery standards including bamboo staking, taping and regular pruning. Plants were arranged in a completely randomized design in each environment. The Cravo structure provided a more uniform environment with reduced air and soil temperature fluctuations versus the outdoor environment. Liners produced in the Cravo structure were taller, had greater caliper and root and shoot mass. Slow release fertilizer produced larger plants. Root dry weight for trees inside the Cravo environment increased nearly five times over the harvest dates of July to October with the maples having the largest root weight.
A.M. Shirazi and M.V. Thierry
It is not well known how cold-hardy new buds and emerging leaves or flowers are during spring. Extreme temperature fluctuations that sometimes bring early frost in spring (April–May) are very common in northern latitudes and cause severe damage to emerging leaves and flowers. Even though most woody plants can tolerate frost in spring, others show early tissue damage and can fully recover. There are some trees, e.g., Japanese maples (Acer palmatum) that when leaves are damaged due to spring frost, the results include severe dieback and eventual death. We tested new flowers and leaves of four crabapples: Malus ×micromalus, M. sargentii, `Mary Potter', and M. hupehensis, after budbreak for 3 years using electrical conductivity (EC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in spring: May 1997, Apr. 1998, and Apr. 2000, at The Morton Arboretum. Both flowers and leaves can tolerate from –6 to –12 °C and we observed higher ion leakage in leaves than flowers. The high temperature exotherm (HTE) of flowers were –8 to –10 °C in April. In a companion study, testing other species that had premature budbreak due to “near lethal” (sublethal) freezing stress in Jan. 2001, the following HTE were observed: Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) flower (about –7.5 °C), Spindle trees leaves (about –6 °C), Judd's viburnum (Viburnum ×juddii) (about –8 °C), Brevipetala witch-hazel (Hamamelis mollis`Brevipetala') flower (about –5 °C), redbud (Cercis candensis) flower (about –9 °C), flowering quince (Chaenomeles ×superba) flower (–8 °C). Multiple LTE at –13, –18, –22, and –27 °C were observed for Judd's viburnum. This information could be useful for selection and breeding of woody plants.
W. Jack Rowe II, Daniel A. Potter, and Robert E. McNiel
Twenty-six purple- or green-leaved cultivars representing 12 species of woody landscape plants were evaluated in the field for defoliation by Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman) over three growing seasons. We further evaluated the hypothesis that, within closely-related plants, purple cultivars generally are preferred over green ones by comparing beetles' consumption of foliage in laboratory choice tests and their orientation to painted silk tree models baited with Japanese beetle lures. Cultivars of Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and hybrids of that species [e.g., Prunus ×cistena (Hansen) Koehne, Prunus ×blireiana André] were more heavily damaged than nearly all other plants tested. Among maples, Acer palmatum Thunb. `Bloodgood' and A. platanoides L. `Deborah' and `Fairview' were especially susceptible. None of the cultivars of Berberis thunbergii DC, Cercis canadensis L., Cotinus coggygria Scop., or Fagus sylvatica L. were heavily damaged, regardless of foliage color. In the choice tests, purple Norway maples were preferred over green ones in three of four comparisons, but preference varied within the other plant genera. In fact, more beetles oriented to green-leaved tree models than to purple ones. Our results indicate that within a genus, purple-leaved plants do not necessarily sustain more damage than green-leaved ones. Widespread use of certain purple-leaved cultivars of generally susceptible plant species probably contributes to the perception that purpleleaved plants, overall, are preferred. Purple-leaved cultivars of redbud, European beech, smoketree, and barberry, or the purple-leaved Prunus virginiana L. `Canada Red' or Malus ×hybrida Lemoine `Jomarie' may be suitable substitutes for more susceptible purple-leaved plants in landscapes where Japanese beetles are a concern.
Adam O. Maggard, Rodney E. Will, Thomas C. Hennessey, Craig R. McKinley, and Janet C. Cole
redbud ( Cercis canadensis ) (Cedar Valley Nurseries, Ada, OK) were planted within each of the plots. On 20 Apr. 2009, 46.5 gal of mulch was spread on each mulched plot to a depth of 3 to 4 inches. In addition to the trees, four individuals of six species
Taryn L. Bauerle, William L. Bauerle, Marc Goebel, and David M. Barnard
‘Rubrum’), hornbeam ( Carpinus betula ‘Columnaris’), redbud ( Cercis canadensis ), and birch ( Betula nigra ‘Cully’). Five replicates of 2-year-old liners per species were transplanted in Apr. 2010 into 15-gal pots (44 cm wide × 38 cm deep) containing a