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Ossama Kodad and Rafel Socias i Company

Most almond breeding programs have fostered the development of self-compatible cultivars to overcome the problems related to cross-pollination of this mostly self-incompatible species ( Socias i Company, 2002 ). Consequently, self

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Ashley K. Brantley, James D. Spiers, Andrew B. Thompson, James A. Pitts, J. Raymond Kessler Jr., Amy N. Wright, and Elina D. Coneva

. chinensis are functionally dioecious species that require interplanting of female and male plants for sufficient pollination to promote commercial fruit size ( Grant et al., 1994 ). Pollination is the most influential factor affecting fruit size and yield

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Raphael A. Stern and Shmuel Gazit

Pollination of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) by the honeybee was studied in Israel's two commercial cultivars, `Mauritius' and `Floridian'. Pollination rate, which was determined in a mixed `Mauritius' and `Floridian' plot, followed a consistent pattern: it was low at the first male (M,) `Mauritius' bloom and reached a high value only when the pseudohermaphroditic (M2) `Mauritius' bloom started. Pollen density on bees collected from `Mauritius' inflorescences was very low during the M, bloom and increased to very high values during the M2 bloom. These results indicate that the `Mauritius' M, bloom does not play an important role as a source of pollen for pollination. Pronounced, significant, and consistent differences in nectar volume per flower and sugar concentration in the nectar were found between M1, M2, and female (F) `Mauritius' flowers. Values were very high in F flowers, medium in M2 flowers, and low in M, flowers. Accordingly, the density of bees found on inflorescences was high during the F bloom, intermediate during the M2 bloom, and low during the M1 bloom. The positive correlation between bee density and sugar concentration in the nectar was highly significant for M2 and F `Mauritius' flowers. The nectar contained three sugars: glucose (43%), fructose (39%), and sucrose (18 %). This ratio was the same in nectar from M1, M2, and F `Mauritius' flowers.

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Michelle M. Wisdom, Michael D. Richardson, Douglas E. Karcher, Donald C. Steinkraus, and Garry V. McDonald

entries, and neither study documented how these plants might affect other organisms in the system, such as beneficial pollinating insects. In highly managed turfgrass systems, many flowering bulbs may be unable to withstand basic lawn cultural practices

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Gina M. Angelella and Megan E. O’Rourke

Pollinator habitat installations can augment nutritional and habitat resources available for pollinators, thereby addressing native pollinator and honeybee declines and corresponding declines in pollination ecosystem services ( Vaughan and Skinner

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Jacob G. Ricker, Jessica D. Lubell, and Mark H. Brand

There is increased interest in using native shrubs for landscaping to support pollinators ( Gagliardi and Brand, 2007 ; Tallamy, 2007 ). Nurseries producing landscape plants typically grow cultivars, which are selections with better performance and

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Alberto Sánchez-Estrada and Julián Cuevas

-incompatibility of most olive varieties. This is possible because open, wind pollination is often sufficient to obtain adequate yield, given the extraordinary varietal richness found in most traditional olive regions, where a mixture of varieties growing nearby is

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Phillip A. Wadl, John A. Skinner, John R. Dunlap, Sandra M. Reed, Timothy A. Rinehart, Vincent R. Pantalone, and Robert N. Trigiano

resistance or a combination of disease resistance and specific ornamental traits. Practically all dogwood cultivars currently available have been derived from either vegetative bud sports or from open-pollinated seedling selections and not from controlled

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Qin Yang and Yan Fu

). Therefore, the distant hybridization incompatibility that has been a major concern for researchers may be overcome by several possible solutions, including pollination before anthesis ( Chen et al., 2004 ), mixed pollen pollination ( Zhao et al., 2008

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Michelle L. Jones and William R. Woodson

In Dianthus caryophyllus flowers the pollinated stigma gives rise to signals that are translocated throughout the flower and ultimately result in corolla senescence. Pollination leads to a rapid increase in ethylene production by the pollinated styles followed by ethylene biosynthesis from the ovaries, the receptacle tissue, and lastly the petals. The accumulation of ACC in these floral tissues also correlates with the sequential pattern of ethylene production. Ethylene production by the pollinated style can be defined temporally by three distinct peaks, with the first peak detected as early as 1 hour after pollination. In a carnation flower with multiple styles it is also possible to detect ethylene production from an unpollinated style on a pollinated gynoecium by 1 hour after pollination. This finding provides evidence for very rapid post-pollination signaling between styles. ACC synthase expression is induced in pollinated styles as early as 1 hour after pollination, but no message is detected in pollinated ovaries. ACC synthase enzyme activity is also absent in the pollinated ovaries despite the accumulation of large amounts of ACC in the ovary after pollination. This indicates that ACC must be translocated between organs after pollination. When a pollinated styles is removed from the flower at least 12 hours after pollination the corolla will still senesce. This indicates that the pollination signal has exited the style by this time. Evidence in carnations suggests that ACC and ethylene may both be involved in aspects of post-pollination signaling.