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Bhaskar R. Bondada

reproductive structures frequently succumb entails phytotoxicity of off-target movement of chemicals against which there are no control measures ( Bondada, 2010 ). These chemicals primarily include vapors and spray drifts of phenoxy herbicides ( Bondada et al

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Yi Zhang and Imed Dami

concentration experiment was to evaluate the phytotoxicity of ABA application under field conditions and confirm the optimum concentration from the greenhouse study ( Zhang et al., 2011 ). The experiment was conducted at 50% fruit set stage (FS), corresponding

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Amir M. González-Delgado, Manoj K. Shukla, and Brian Schutte

information available on its fate and transport under laboratory and field conditions ( González-Delgado et al., 2017 ; Guerra et al., 2014 ; Trigo et al., 2014 ). Information on phytotoxicity effects of indaziflam on pecan is especially limited ( González

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Lyn A. Gettys and William T. Haller

lakes often use water from these sources to irrigate turf, bedding plants, foliage species, and other ornamental plants. Therefore, a study of the possible phytotoxicity of these herbicides is important to determine appropriate irrigation restrictions on

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Yi Zhang, Tracey Mechlin, and Imed Dami

a week before ABA application. Abscisic acid phytotoxicity The phytotoxicity of ABA was evaluated in leaves and nodes. Visual observation of leaf distortion was made 24 h after ABA application and leaf injury was assessed and recorded a week after

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Diane Feliciano Cayanan, Youbin Zheng, Ping Zhang, Tom Graham, Mike Dixon, Calvin Chong, and Jennifer Llewellyn

phytotoxic effects of chlorinated water on herbaceous ornamental and vegetable plants and even less so on woody ornamentals. Frink and Bugbee (1987) reported that geranium and begonia receiving chlorinated water declined in growth. Brown (1991) also

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Lyn A. Gettys and William T. Haller

irrigation restrictions to reduce the likelihood of phytotoxic effects on nonfood crops. Quinclorac is labeled for postemergence weed control in rice ( Oryza sativa ) and in warm- and cool-season grasses, including tall fescue ( Festuca spp.), kentucky

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Gerald M. Henry, Jared A. Hoyle, Leslie L. Beck, Tyler Cooper, Thayne Montague, and Cynthia McKenney

several broadleaf and grass weeds with preemergence applications of oxyfluorfen at 0.6 kg a.i./ha. Treated plots exhibited higher crop yields than weedy control plots with minimal olive tree phytotoxicity ( Montemurro et al., 2002 ). Flumioxazin, isoxaben

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J. J. Knabke and H. G. Hancock

Talstar 10WP insecticide/Miticide (bifenthrin) is used for the control of a broad spectrum of economic pests on ornamentals. Over 100 species of greenhouse and field–grown plants, trees and shrubs have been shown to exhibit no phytotoxic response to the wettable powder formulation. Research efforts with alternative bifenthrin, formulations, which exhibit equivalent pest efficacy and lack of phytotoxicity, may also provide unique application opportunities.

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Michelle L. Bell, James R. Baker, and Douglas A. Bailey

Potential phytotoxicity and plant growth-regulating activity of insecticidal dips for poinsettias was investigated by dipping, then growing unpinched, rooted cuttings of `Red Sails', `Freedom', and `V-14 Glory' in the following insecticidal emulsions for five durations: 2% insecticidal soap (Safer's), 2% horticultural oil (Sunspray Ultrafine), fluvalinate (Mavrik Aquaflow), oxythioquinox (Joust), kinoprene (EnstarII), azadirachtin (Margosan-O), fenoxycarb (Precision), and an oil-carrier formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Naturalis-L). Dips in soap, oxythioquinox, Naturalis-L, and oil were phytotoxic to all three cultivars. Also, kinoprene and fenoxycarb were phytotoxic to `Red Sails'. At dip durations of 10 s and greater, soap, Naturalis-L, and oil were phytotoxic. Oxythioquinox was phytotoxic at durations of 1 min, 15 min, and 1 h. Only fluvalinate was not phytotoxic as a 4-h dip. After 2 weeks, plants dipped in oxythioquinox, Naturalis-L, and oil were stunted. By week 4, differential cultivar effects were seen: six dips (all but fluvalinate and azadirachtin) stunted growth of `Red Sails', whereas only Naturalis-L and oil retarded growth of `V-14 Glory'. Six weeks after treatment, growth of all cultivars was stunted by oxythioquinox, Naturalis-L, and oil, but was not retarded by fluvalinate or azadirachtin. Dip duration significantly affected growth by weeks 4 and 6, when all durations of Naturalis-L and oil reduced growth. Additionally, 4-h dips of oxythioquinox and kinoprene stunted plants after 4 weeks, and 1- and 4-h dips of oxythioquinox, kinoprene, and fenoxycarb adversely affected growth after 6 weeks.