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Todd W. Wert, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Jose X. Chaparro, E. Paul Miller, and Robert E. Rouse

obtained from a FAWN (Florida Automated Weather Network) station. Chilling (hours below 7.2 °C) was determined within each location starting during the first week of November and ending on 31 Jan. Three shoots representing growth that occurred the

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Han Xu, Cuihua Bai, Wei Wang, Changmin Zhou, Luwei Zhu, and Lixian Yao

South China, and shoots twice after harvest, followed by dormancy during November to December. In the spring, the floral bud differentiates and then blossoms in late March to early May, followed by fruit development from late March to August. Sample

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Bryant C. Scharenbroch

rates of each tree. In November of 2010, trees were carefully separated from the soils. Trees were washed with deionized water to remove all soil and all leaves were removed. Trees were cut at the root and shoot interface. Shoots and roots were dried at

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Yiyun Lin and Michelle L. Jones

shelf life during retailing, and improve landscape performance for the final consumers ( Parađiković et al., 2019 ). Formulated biostimulant products often combine multiple active ingredients and may include microbial and non-microbial components to

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Duane W. Greene

; Unrath, 1999 ). It is also very effective in the control of fire blight in the shoot phase of this disease ( Buban et al., 2004 ; Norelli and Miller, 2004 ; Rademacher, 2004 ; Rademacher and Kober, 2003 ; Yoder et al., 1999 ). The timings for the

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Matthew L. Richardson, Catherine J. Westbrook, David G. Hall, Ed Stover, Yong Ping Duan, and Richard F. Lee

of samples per parent genotype was 28 as a result of the lack of synchronous flushing by plants on our sampling dates. For plants with multiple flush shoots, the first shoot found to contain leafminers was used to determine abundance for that

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Carl E. Sams, Dilip R. Panthee, Craig S. Charron, Dean A. Kopsell, and Joshua S. Yuan

experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications of each Se treatment in separate containers holding six plants each. Plants were harvested before anthesis 14 d after Se treatments were initiated. Shoots were triple-rinsed with

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U.L. Yadava and S.K. Dhir

The morphogenetic potential of parval or pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) shoot-tip explants was investigated to establish this species as a model tissue culture system. An effective multiple-shoot propagation method is described. Ten-millimeter shoot tips from young branches of greehouse-grown plants served as explants. They were initiated on a MS basal medium. Multiple shoots were encouraged by transferring established explants to a proliferation medium consisting of MSB + 1 mg BAP/liter, because lower concentrations of BAP (0.1 to 0.5 mgliter–1) inhibited multiple shoot formation; however, the same concentrations promoted rooting in explants. Medium supplemented with 1 mg BAP/liter and 100 mg PVP/liter caused the best proliferation of shoot tips. Upon transferring to fresh medium of the same composition, these shoot tips elongated 24 cm with three to five nodes in 4 weeks of culturing. Shoot multiplication cultures were maintained by transferring segments of multiple-shoot clusters to medium containing 1 mg BAP/liter and 0.5 mg GA3/liter. Medium supplemented with TDZ inhibited the number of regenerating explants but enhanced the number of shoot buds. Eighty percent of these plantlets were successfully rooted on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg NAA/liter. Plantlets survived in potting soil and exhibited normal growth under mist in the greenhouse.

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Benjamin D. Toft, Mobashwer M. Alam, John D. Wilkie, and Bruce L. Topp

Lespinasse, 2001 ; Sherif, 2013 ), and increased branching can improve early flowering of mango due to availability of terminal shoots ( Oosthuyse and Jacobs, 1995 ), although similar relationships are unclear for macadamia. Therefore, it is necessary to

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L. Agus Sukamto

Shoot tip culture of Ficus benjamina L. `Variegata' produced multiple shoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1 μm 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), 1 μm napthalene acetic acid (NAA), 1 μm benzylaminopurine (BAP), l-proline at 2 mg·liter–1, and l-glutamine at 1 mg·liter–1 without previously producing callus. Multiple shoots were more profuse on one-half MS medium with 4.44 μm BAP. Single shoot of multiple shoots produced roots on one-half MS medium with NAA at 2.69 μm. Leaf culture of the plant produced profuse calli on same media without plant regeneration. Calli subcultured on one-half MS or MS media with 1.7 μm indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 150 μm 6-(y,y-dimethylallylamino)-purine (2iP) did not induce plant regeneration.