of samples per parent genotype was 28 as a result of the lack of synchronous flushing by plants on our sampling dates. For plants with multiple flush shoots, the first shoot found to contain leafminers was used to determine abundance for that
Matthew L. Richardson, Catherine J. Westbrook, David G. Hall, Ed Stover, Yong Ping Duan, and Richard F. Lee
Carl E. Sams, Dilip R. Panthee, Craig S. Charron, Dean A. Kopsell, and Joshua S. Yuan
experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications of each Se treatment in separate containers holding six plants each. Plants were harvested before anthesis 14 d after Se treatments were initiated. Shoots were triple-rinsed with
U.L. Yadava and S.K. Dhir
The morphogenetic potential of parval or pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) shoot-tip explants was investigated to establish this species as a model tissue culture system. An effective multiple-shoot propagation method is described. Ten-millimeter shoot tips from young branches of greehouse-grown plants served as explants. They were initiated on a MS basal medium. Multiple shoots were encouraged by transferring established explants to a proliferation medium consisting of MSB + 1 mg BAP/liter, because lower concentrations of BAP (0.1 to 0.5 mg–liter–1) inhibited multiple shoot formation; however, the same concentrations promoted rooting in explants. Medium supplemented with 1 mg BAP/liter and 100 mg PVP/liter caused the best proliferation of shoot tips. Upon transferring to fresh medium of the same composition, these shoot tips elongated 24 cm with three to five nodes in 4 weeks of culturing. Shoot multiplication cultures were maintained by transferring segments of multiple-shoot clusters to medium containing 1 mg BAP/liter and 0.5 mg GA3/liter. Medium supplemented with TDZ inhibited the number of regenerating explants but enhanced the number of shoot buds. Eighty percent of these plantlets were successfully rooted on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg NAA/liter. Plantlets survived in potting soil and exhibited normal growth under mist in the greenhouse.
Benjamin D. Toft, Mobashwer M. Alam, John D. Wilkie, and Bruce L. Topp
Lespinasse, 2001 ; Sherif, 2013 ), and increased branching can improve early flowering of mango due to availability of terminal shoots ( Oosthuyse and Jacobs, 1995 ), although similar relationships are unclear for macadamia. Therefore, it is necessary to
L. Agus Sukamto
Shoot tip culture of Ficus benjamina L. `Variegata' produced multiple shoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1 μm 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), 1 μm napthalene acetic acid (NAA), 1 μm benzylaminopurine (BAP), l-proline at 2 mg·liter–1, and l-glutamine at 1 mg·liter–1 without previously producing callus. Multiple shoots were more profuse on one-half MS medium with 4.44 μm BAP. Single shoot of multiple shoots produced roots on one-half MS medium with NAA at 2.69 μm. Leaf culture of the plant produced profuse calli on same media without plant regeneration. Calli subcultured on one-half MS or MS media with 1.7 μm indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 150 μm 6-(y,y-dimethylallylamino)-purine (2iP) did not induce plant regeneration.
Jocelyne Kervella, Loïc Pagès, and Michel Génard
Leaf emergence was studied on main and first-order shoots of peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] trees belonging to nine standard cultivars, during their first growing season. The number of emerged leaves was recorded on main shoots (originating from the grafted buds) and on first-order shoots (inserted directly on main shoots). Similarly shaped leaf emergence curves were observed on main and first-order shoots for all the cultivars. Leaf emergence rate decreased gradually as the number of leaves increased. The number of emerged leaves could be modeled as a monomolecular function of accumulated thermal units. Significant differences were found between cultivars in a multiple analysis of variance of the model parameters, for main and first-order shoots. The ranking of the cultivars was similar for both types of shoots. Leaf emergence rate was lower on first-order shoots than on main shoots. Differentiating between shoot types is necessary for a reliable comparison of genotypes.
Abigail R. Debner, Harlene Hatterman-Valenti, and Fumiomi Takeda
) blackberry plants that develop a flower shoot and fruit within several months. Cuttings would be taken during the dormant season to root, flower, and fruit for an annual high-density (≈75,000 potted plants/acre) production system that should produce ≈5000 lb
Joao L.C. Faria and Juan Segura
A protocol for in vitro propagation in yellow passionfruit (Passiflora edulis F. flavicarpa Deg) has been developed. Shoot apices from aseptically grown seedlings were used as initial explants. Multiple shoot formation was obtained by placing the explants on solidified Murashige and Skoog medium containing BA. Regenerated shoots were rooted on media without growth regulators. Following conventional procedures, plantlets were transferred to soil with more than 90% success. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-lH-purin-6-amine (BA).
Chad E. Finn, Andrew L. Thomas, Patrick L. Byers, and Sedat Serçe
, 2007 ). If a grower can successfully manage S. canadensis with its multiple shoots, it would probably be a better commercial choice. Although several of these S. canadensis genotypes are likely to do well in Oregon, ‘Johns’ and ‘York’ offer the most
Guochen Yang and Marihelen Kamp-Glass
An efficient and reliable protocol of in vitro shoot regeneration must be first established to have a successful genetic transformation. As a member of legume family, alfalfa is very difficult for direct shoot regeneration. There is no published information on direct shoot organogenesis, although success has been well documented on embryogenesis, which must go through callus stage. Different plant growth regulators at various concentrations were evaluated for callus initiation, development, and direct shoot regeneration. Multiple shoots were produced directly from each individual explant. This will provide an efficient means for production of transgenic alfalfa plants. Therefore, genetic transformation of Medicago germplasm will be significantly expedited.