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D. Handley, M. Schupp, T. Work, R. Work, and A. Bushway

Twelve early to midseason ripening tomato cultivars were evaluated for early and total marketable yield, fruit size, and external characteristics under the cool, short growing season of northern New England. The acceptability of external and internal color, texture, and flavor of four cultivars was evaluated by a sensory panel of 50 members. There was little difference between cultivars in total yield. This was probably due to an early frost that destroyed much of the later ripening fruit. `Summerset' had the highest early and overall yields but the smallest fruit size. `Johnny's 361` had high overall yield and large fruit with good early yields. `Pilgrim' had high early yield, good overall yield, and fair fruit size. `Jetstar' and `Daybreak' fell into the middle of the range for total yield and fruit size, but `Jetstar' had very low early yield. `Pik Red' and `Pik Rite' had low early and total yields but good fruit size. `Moreton Hybrid' had fair early and total yields and small fruit size. In the sensory analysis, `Sunrise' had the highest rated external color, while `Moreton Hybrid' had the lowest rating. Internal color ratings did not vary greatly, although `Sunrise' was least acceptable in this characteristic. `Jetstar' was rated highest for flavor and texture, followed by `Moreton Hybrid', `Sunrise', and `Valley Girl'.

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Paul Wilson

Jalapeños are versatile peppers with both green and mature-red peppers used fresh and in processed products. Peppers can be dried, pickled whole in brine or as salted mash for sauces. Mature fruit can also be smoked and dried to produce chipotle which can be used in several ways including preparation of sauces. Although there are many individual cultivars of jalapeño peppers available, little is known of their processing characteristics. Most food processors still rely on fresh-market supplies rather than contracting specific cultivars which might provide better processing characteristics. A study was begun in Summer 2005 at LSU to provide information concerning the processing characteristics of commonly available jalapeño cultivars. Over a 3-year period, each cultivar will be evaluated in fresh form, as pickled whole fruit, as salted mash and as smoked chipotle. Besides good cultural production qualities, pepper cultivars that will be manufactured into processed products should have 1) acceptable and consistent heat content, 2) good stable color and, 3) consistent/suitable size (for whole pack). Seventeen jalapeño cultivars were evaluated in fresh green, brine-cured green and mature-red state for fruit surface color, average fruit weight, dry weight, and percent seed.

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R.J. Hilton, H. Riedl, and P.H. Westigard

Handgun treatments of abamectin and oil applied between mid-June and late August caused distinct epidermal rings where drops of spray liquid dried on the surface of pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.). The severity of epidermal injury was related to the concentration of oil in the abamectin spray mixture (abamectin applied without oil caused no fruit damage). Of six pear cultivars tested, `Anjou' was most susceptible to injury, followed by `Cornice' and `Bartlett'. `Sensation Red Bartlett', `Bosc', and `Seckel' showed little or no phytotoxicity symptoms from abamectin and oil treatments with oil concentrations from 0.125% to 2.0% (v/v). On sensitive cultivars, the concentration of oil should not exceed 0.25% (v/v) when combined with abamectin to reduce the risk of epidermal injury. Oil at 0.25% provides for adequate leaf penetration of abamectin and results in commercially acceptable spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control. Chemical names used: avermectin B1 (abamectin).

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M. Pilar Bañados, Carolina Alvarez, and Alejandra Soto

97 ORAL SESSION 20 (Abstr. 524–531) Small Fruit/Viticulture: Production & Physiology of Raspberries/Blueberries/Cranberries

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S.R. Drake and T.A. Eisele

appreciation to the Washington State Tree Fruit Research Commission for funds partially supporting this study. Names are necessary to report factually on available data; however, the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use

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Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly A. Moore

Salvia (Salvia splendens) `Red Vista' or `Purple Vista,' french marigold (Tagetes patula) `Little Hero Orange,' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) `Better Bell,' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) `Accent White,' and wax begonia (Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum) `Cocktail Vodka' were grown in 0.95-L (1-qt) containers using a 5 pine bark: 4 sedge peat: 1 sand substrate (Expts. 1 and 2) or Pro Mix BX (Expt. 2 only). They were fertilized weekly with 50 mL (1.7 fl oz) of a solution containing 100, 200, or 300 mg·L-1 (ppm) of nitrogen derived from 15N-6.5P-12.5K (1N-1P2O5-1K2O ratio) or 21N-3P-11.7K (3N-1P2O5-2K2O ratio) uncoated prills used in the manufacture of controlled-release fertilizers. Plants grown with Pro Mix BX were generally larger and produced more flowers or fruit than those grown with the pine bark mix. With few exceptions, plant color, root and shoot dry weights, and number of flowers or fruit were highly correlated with fertilization rate, but not with prill type. There appears to be little reason for using the more expensive 1-1-1 ratio prills, since they generally did not improve plant quality and may increase phosphorous runoff from bedding plant nurseries.

Open access

C. B. Watkins, J. M. Haki, and C. Frenkel


The activities of the enzymes polygalacturonase, α-d-mannosidase, and α-d- and β-d-galactosidase in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) pericarp tissue were measured during ripening of two normal ripening cultivars, Sweet 100 and ACE 55 VF, the slow-ripening alcobaca mutant, and their F1 progeny. The activity of polygalacturonase increased as the fruit ripened from mature green to red stages for all tomato lines (‘Sweet 100 > ‘Sweet 100’ × alcobaca > ‘ACE 55 VF’ > ‘Ace 55 VF’ × alcobaca > alcobaca). Of the other enzymes, α-mannosidase showed the greatest quantitative differences between the tomato lines and consistently increased in activity during ripening. There was, however, no association between the activity of α-d-mannosidase and polygalacturonase. The highest β-galactosidase activity occurred in ‘Sweet 100’, but was generally similar in the other lines. The activity of α-galactosidase varied little between parents and progeny for any stage of ripeness.

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Habib Khemira, Timothy L. Righetti, and Anita N. Azarenko

Young bearing spur (Red-Spur Delicious) and standard (Top-Red Delicious) type apple trees were given one of the following treatments: 120g N applied to the ground in spring (SG), 120g N applied to the ground one month before harvest (PG), 60g N sprayed on the foliage after harvest (FF), 60g N SG and 60g N PG, or 60g N SG and 60g N FE Urea and NH4NO3 depleted in 15N (0.01 atom percentage 15N) were used for foliar and ground applications, respectively. Very little labeled N was present in leaves and fruit with PG applications, but roots, bark, and buds contained substantial amounts of it. Nitrogen from the FF sprays was effectively translocated to buds and bark. Percentage of N from the fertilizer in Sept leaves from spur-type trees that had only 60 g of N in spring was 56% higher than that found in standard-type trees. This figure rose to 180% with 120 g N spring application. Mature fruit showed the same trend. Spur-type trees appeared more responsive to N management practices. In contrast to the above ground structure, small roots of standard-type trees showed more label than those of spur-type trees. The difference was bigger with SG applications. Partitioning of N in the roots was apparently affected by the scion.

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M. Cecilia Peppi, Matthew W. Fidelibus, and Nick Dokoozlian

Poor coloration of red grapes grown in warm regions is a frequent problem that decreases production efficiency. Most table grape growers use ethephon to improve color, but its influence on color development is erratic, and it may reduce berry firmness. Application of S-abscisic acid (ABA) to grapes can increase the anthocyanins in their skins, but no protocols have been established regarding its potential commercial use. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of ABA and ethephon treatments on fruit quality characteristics, including those related to firmness and color, on `Flame Seedless' grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in several experiments over three consecutive seasons. Abscisic acid had few effects on berry weight or juice composition, but it increased berry softening and skin anthocyanin concentrations. The effect of ABA on berry firmness was similar to ethephon. With respect to skin anthocyanin concentration and fruit color characteristics, 300 mg·L–1 ABA applied at veraison was superior to the other ABA concentrations and to ethephon applied at any of the times tested. Moreover, any concentration of ABA between 75 and 300 mg·L–1 applied after veraison improved color better than ethephon applied at the same time. There was a highly significant inverse curvilinear relationship between skin anthocyanin concentration and the lightness and hue of the berries. Anthocyanin concentrations between 0.01 and 0.04 mg·cm–2 had little effect on berry lightness and hue, so researchers should consider measuring color, not just anthocyanins, when evaluating the quality of red table grapes.