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Karen H. S. Taylor, Dr. Greg Cobb, and Dr. Jayne Zajicek

Designing a landscape involves the selection of plants with certain characteristics such as height, color, hardiness zone, bloom time, etc. A Hypercard stack, which is a specific type of software application for Macintosh computers, was developed to aid landscapers in the location of plants with the desired characteristics. This Hypercard stack, called the “Plant Stack”, is based on the book, Identification Selection and Use of Southern Plants for Landscape Design, by Dr. Neil Odenwald and James Turner. The stack is also useful as an educational tool; for example, it can be used as a set of flash cards. Use of the software for selecting southern plants will be discussed as will use of the same software as an educational tool.

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Yan Chen, Regina Bracy, and Allen Owings

Oral Session 28—Ornamentals, Landscape & Turf Management 30 July 2006, 10:30–11:30 a.m. Oak Alley Moderator: Jeffrey Norcini

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Philip Busey, Timothy K. Broschat, and Diane L. Johnston

Phenoxy and related herbicides used in turfgrass have the potential for volatilization and movement from treated areas. Three studies assessed potential injury to subtropical landscape plants caused by volatile turf herbicides in polyethylene enclosures. Phenoxy herbicide mixtures were emphasized. There were significant differences among the seven landscape species tested. The most sensitive species were african marigold (Tagetes erecta), joseph's coat (Alternanthera ficoidea), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Severe injury was caused by exposure to herbicides containing 2,4-D isooctyl ester and MCPA isooctyl ester. Exposure to individual active ingredients 2,4-D dimethylamine, dicamba acid, atrazine, and metsulfuron resulted in no injury to the species tested.

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J.G. Norcini and J.H. Aldrich

Eight species of low-growing woody and herbaceous landscape plants were evaluated for tolerance to 1.1 or 2.2 kg a.i. bentazon/ha (plus a crop oil) applied over the top twice 7 days apart. Raphiolepis indica L. Lindl. `Alba' was the only species tolerant to bentazon in either of two experiments. Bentazon injury to Liriope muscari (Decne.) L.H. Bailey `Evergreen Giant' was minor (slight chlorosis) and would probably be tolerable under most landscape situations. Injury (primarily chlorosis/necrosis) to Carissa macrocarpa `Emerald Blanket', Juniperus horizontalis Moench `Bar Harbor', Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait. `Compacta Green', Trachelospermum asiaticum (Sie-bold & Zucc.) Nakai `Aslo', Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl., and Hemerocallis × `Aztec Gold' was significant and therefore unacceptable. Chemical name used: 3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-(4)-3H-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon).

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James E. Klett and David Staats

Herbicides were applied to container grown landscape plants and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. Three preemergent herbicides were applied including: Oxadiazon (Ronstar) at 4.54 and 9.08 kg/ha, Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout) at 3.41 and 6.81 kg/ha and Oryzalin (Surflan) at 2.27 and 4.54 kg/ha. There was also a weedy and non-weedy control. The plant species included: Syringa vulgaris (Common Lilac), Wisteria sinensis (Chinese Wisteria), Phlox paniculata (Garden Phlox) and Dahlia hybrid (Garden Dahlia). They were all grown in number one containers in a media of soil, spaghnum peat moss, and plaster sand (1:2:1 by volume). All herbicides tested controlled weeds effectively with no phytotoxicity except with Phlox paniculata. Oryzalin resulted in a phytotoxic effect on Phlox paniculata at both the 1x and 2x rates.

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Gary J. Keever

Eight species of container-grown woody landscape plants received a single foliar spray of 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg a.i. ASC-66952 ·liter-1 on 13 June 1990. (ASC-66952 is a proprietary chemical being developed by ISK-Biotech.) Axillary, rhizomatous, and total shoot numbers of `Harbour Dwarf' nandina were increased with increasing concentrations of ASC-66952. Relative to those of the control plants, axillary shoot numbers were increased from 350% with 25 mg·liter-1 to 950% with 200 mg·liter-1, while rhizomatous shoot numbers were increased 144% with the lowest concentration and 477% with the highest concentration. Growth indices were decreased from 2.1% with 25 mg·liter-1 to 9.7% with 200 mg·liter-1. Branching and growth indices of other species tested were minimally affected by ASC-66952 application.

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Karl J. Muzii, M. Haque, R.T. Fernandez, B. Behe, and S. Barton

The research contained in this thesis quantifies the difference between actual landscape value and perceived value on the part of homeowners. Pertinent information and necessary data were gathered by surveys interviewing consumers over the age of 18, who evaluated a set of 16 home landscape photographs. These surveys were conducted at two sites in South Carolina. The study involved three levels of landscape design with varying complexity and cost factors. Four plant material and hardscape combinations were developed for use in each cost design. Finally, the plant material size was categorized as small, medium, or large. Thirty-six design combinations were created. A subset of 16 computer-generated images was selected to simplify the evaluation. Participating respondents answered a questionnaire providing personal demographic information and their evaluations of the 16-image subset. Participants were supplied a base starting price and a photo of the home without landscaping. Responses were analyzed to determine consumer perceptions of value influenced by landscape design style, plant material, and hardscape selection; plant size; and by the difference between perceived value and actual cost to install. Consumer responses for all landscape designs were positive and indicate that consumers consider landscaping an asset to residential value. Participants valued the home on average between.95% to 11.3%, depending on the complexity of design, plant material, hardscape, and size combinations. The variance between consumer perception and actual cost of material and labor indicates that consumers undervalue the price of a newly installed landscape where all material and labor costs are priced consistent with professional landscaping averages.

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M.P. Garber and K. Bondari

1 Associate Professor. 2 Professor. Supported in part by the American Society of Landscape Architects, 4401 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20008; the Southern Nurserymen's Assn., 1511 Johnson Ferry Rd., Suite 115, Marietta, GA 30062

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Cathleen A. Peterson, L. Brooke McDowell, and Chris A. Martin

Heightened awareness of ecological concerns have prompted many municipalities to promote water conservation through landscape design. In central Arizona, urban residential landscapes containing desert-adapted plant species are termed xeriscapes, while those containing temperate or tropical species and turf are termed mesoscapes. Research was conducted to ascertain landscape plant species diversity, tree, shrub, and ground cover frequency; landscape canopy area coverage; and monthly irrigation application volumes for xeric and mesic urban residential landscapes. The residential urban landscapes were located in Tempe and Phoenix, Ariz., and all were installed initially between 1985 and 1995. Although species composition of xeric and mesic landscapes was generally dissimilar, both landscape types had comparable species diversity. Mesoscapes had significantly more trees and shrubs and about 2.3 times more canopy area coverage per landscaped area than xeriscapes. Monthly irrigation application volumes per landscaped surface area were higher for xeriscapes. Even though human preference for xeric landscape plants may be ecological in principle, use of desert-adapted species in central Arizona urban residential landscape settings might not result in less landscape water use compared with mesic landscapes.

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L. Brooke McDowell and Chris A. Martin

153 ORAL SESSION 31 (Abstr. 596–601) Woody Ornamentals/Landscape/Turf: Stress Physiology/Crop Protection