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Xuetong Fan and Kimberly J.B. Sokorai

that MAP minimized tissue browning caused by irradiation. Tissue browning is considered to result from an increase in enzymatic activities such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase ( Ke and Saltveit, 1989 ). Phenylalanine

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Ting Min, En-chao Liu, Jun Xie, Yang Yi, Li-mei Wang, You-wei Ai, and Hong-xun Wang

greatly enhance the shelf life and overall quality of fresh produce ( Mcdonald and Sun, 2000 ). Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) are involved in the enzymatic browning of many fruits and vegetables

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Ji-Lian Zheng, Lan-Ying Hu, Kang-Di Hu, Jun Wu, Feng Yang, and Hua Zhang

) phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL); and ( I ) protease in apple slices. Apple slices were fumigated with 0.4 mmol·L −1 H 2 S donor sodium hydrosulfide aqueous solution (H 2 S) with water as the control groups (CK) for 0–5 d. Data are presented as means ± sd (n

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Huiling Wang, Wei Wang, Weidong Huang, and Haiying Xu

so on ( D’Onofrio et al., 2009 ; Jeong et al., 2004 ; Xu et al., 2015 ). Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. PAL = phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; C4H = cinnamate-4-hydroxylase; 4CL = 4-coumarate:CoA ligase; CHS

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Ann M. Callahan, Chris Dardick, and Ralph Scorza

) with the reverse transcriptase reaction and subsequent amplification in the same tube (1-step qPCR). The four genes monitored were phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), which initiate lignin biosynthesis, caffeoyl coenzyme

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Ting Min, Li-Fang Niu, Jun Xie, Yang Yi, Li-mei Wang, You-wei Ai, and Hong-xun Wang

of the samples undergoing VP and AP showed different magnitudes of change, from the initial value of 12.802 to 12.225 U/g (VP) and 26.354 U/g (AP) at day 35. Fig. 3. Effects of two different packaging methods on phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL

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Ignasi Iglesias and Simó Alegre

phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and this is temperature sensitive but also light inducible. Temperatures below 25 °C promote this reaction ( Arakawa et al., 1986 ; Blankenship, 1987 ; Faragher, 1983 ; Iglesias et al., 1999 ) and so the red pigmentation

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Greg McCollum and Pilar Maul

., 1984 ; Mullins et al., 2000 ). Exposure of citrus fruit to exogenous ethylene induces a number of physiological and biochemical changes, including increases in activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase ( Riov et al., 1969 ), cholorophyllase ( Trebitsh

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Qing Xu, Shi-Rong Guo, He Li, Nan-Shan Du, Sheng Shu, and Jin Sun

phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in peach grafted on different Prunus spp Biol. Plant. 58 114 120 Polle, A. Otter, T. Seifert, F. 1994 Apoplastic peroxidases and lignification in needles of norway spruce ( Picea abies L) Plant Physiol. 106 53 60 Quiroga

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Jollanda Effendy, Don R. La Bonte, and Niranjan Baisakh

Chinnusamy, V. Zhu, J. Zhu, J.-K. 2007 Cold stress regulation of gene expression in plants Trends Plant Sci. 12 444 451 Cochrane, F.C. Davin, L.B. Lewis, N.G. 2004 The Arabidopsis phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene family: Kinetic characterization of the four