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Carrie A. Radcliffe, James M. Affolter, and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

ultraviolet light using a light microscope (BX51). In vitro germination assays were conducted according to Yi et al. (2003) . Pollen was inoculated in microwell plates using a standard germination medium (0.062% CaNO 3 and 0.024% boric acid) containing 15

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María Daniela Mares-Quiñones and Juan Ignacio Valiente-Banuet

established that piquin peppers present high genetic variability (among and within populations) with high phenotypic plasticity ( Castañón-Nájera et al., 2014 ). Differences in plant characteristics, fruit and leaf morphology, seed germination, and pathogen

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Jane Kahia, Margaret Kirika, Hudson Lubabali, and Sinclair Mantell

level. Plant materials The explants evaluated were type 1; leaves from in vitro-germinated seedlings, type 2; leaves from 6-month-old seedlings raised in green house, type 3; hypocotyls of somatic embryos type 4; leaves from coffee somatic embryos, type

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Jane Kahia, Peter Kanze Sallah, Lucien Diby, Christophe Kouame, Margaret Kirika, Simeon Niyitegeka, and Theodore Asiimwe

in 70% ethanol for 30 s, followed by 3% commercial bleach called JIK which contains 3.85% NaOCl [Reckitt and Benckiser (Kenya) Ltd] for 20 min and a final rinse with sterile distilled water four times. The seeds were germinated on a Murashige and

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Samira Samarfard, Mihdzar A. Kadir, Saleh B. Kadzimin, Halimi M. Saud, Seyed Ali Ravanfar, and Mahmoud Danaee

formed in embryo development during seed germination ( Ishii et al., 1998 ). PLB multiplication is often applied to increase the number of orchids that are not able to germinate well or produce very few seeds. PLBs are also highly targeted tissues for

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Huan Xiong, He Sun, Feng Zou, Xiaoming Fan, Genhua Niu, and Deyi Yuan

distilled water to remove excess HgCl 2 . Excised part of the cotyledons before seed embryos was placed on aseptic MS ( Murashige and Skoog, 1962 ) medium, which contained 0.65% agar and 3% sucrose, in glass tubes for germination. The seedlings were grown

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James J. Camberato and S. Bruce Martin

Bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) greens are overseeded annually with rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.) in the coastal southeastern United States, where irrigation water is often saline. Salinity may slow seed germination and delay turf establishment. Cultivar and seed lot differences in sensitivity to salinity may be substantial. Our objective was to determine the effects of salinity on germination of commercially available rough bluegrass cultivars and seed lots. To accomplish this, we examined the effects of salinity (0, 1.8, 3.4, and 5.0 dS·m-1 established with NaCl in deionized water) on germination of 33 cultivars/seed lots of rough bluegrass in vitro. Fifty seeds of each cultivar/seed lot were placed on pre-moistened germination paper in petri dishes, sealed with parafilm, and placed in growth chambers with 12-hours light/12-hours dark at 20/10 °C, respectively. Germination was scored from 4 to 25 days after seed placement. Rough bluegrass germination rate varied among cultivars/seed lots, ranging from less than three seeds/day to nearly seven seeds/day. Salinity slowed rough bluegrass germination rate from about six seeds/day at 0 dS·m-1 to five seeds/day at 5 dS·m-1. Increasing salinity reduced early germination of some cultivar/seed lots more than that of others. Impact was substantial in three cultivar/seed lots, where early germination at 5.0 dS·m-1 was less than 15% of that at 0 dS·m-1. For most cultivar/seed lots, the reduction in early germination with salinity at 5.0 dS·m-1 was about 50% of that at 0 dS·m-1. Final germination was reduced only 3% by increasing salinity. In view of differences in germination rate and response to salinity among seed lots of rough bluegrass cultivars, we suggest the planting of multiple cultivars and seed lots of rough bluegrass to insure rapid establishment.

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D.W. Ramming, R.L. Emershad, P. Spiegel-Roy, N. Sahar, and I. Baron

assistance of Iris Sashitzky, ARO. Mention of trade products does not imply endorsement or recommendation over similar products not mentioned. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations

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Denis Lauzer and Claire Laberge

The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate this fact.

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Youzhi Chen, John M. Smagula, Walter Litten, and Scott Dunham

project include Donald Avery, Vanessa Lampke, Jennifer Martin, Jim Murray, Kim Turner, and Jessica Picucci. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby