may carry heat tolerance genes. Heat-delay-insensitive chrysanthemum genotypes exist, but screening for the desired seedlings by greenhouse or field evaluation techniques is slow ( Anderson and Ascher, 2001 ; De Jong, 1989 ). Cell membrane
Ching-Hsueh Wang, Der-Ming Yeh, and Chian-Shinn Sheu
Hua Zhang and Paul H. Jennings
Heat shock was applied to 32-h-old cucumber seedlings before chilling at 2.5C. Two cultivars, `Poinsett 76' and `Ashley', with different chilling tolerances, were tested. Using root growth after chilling as a measure of chilling tolerance, three heat shock regimes were found to induce chilling tolerance in both cultivars, with the most effective and uniform induction by heat shock at 40C for 3 h. `Ashley', the more chilling tolerant cultivar, exhibited a greater response to heat shock induction of chilling tolerance than `Poinsett 76'. Protein samples from roots were subjected to SDS-PAGE. Three low molecular weight heat shock proteins accumulated to a greater extent in the protein profile of heat-shocked `Ashley' roots. No such increase was found in the `Poinsett 76' roots. The induction of low molecular weight HSPs are discussed in relation to the heat-shock induction of chilling tolerance.
Paul H. Jennings and Ann Fitzpatrick
Heat shock induction of chilling tolerance in cucumber seedlings is not blocked by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Treatment of germinating seeds with cycloheximide and actinomycin-D, prior to heat shock and chilling, does not block the heat shock induction of chilling tolerance, while the inhibitors alone promote chilling tolerance of seedling roots. To test whether the heat shock effect might be acting on proteases, two protease inhibitors (bestatin and PMSF) were tested for their ability to induce chilling tolerance. Although PMSF slowed germination, it still provided protection against chilling, but bestatin was much more effective.
Hua Zhang and Paul H. Jennings
The effects of heat shock duration and persistence on the induction of chilling tolerance in cucumber roots were studied using total root growth, electrolyte leakage, and membrane peroxidation as injury indices after chilling. Heat shock reduced the chilling induced electrolyte leakage, decreased membrane peroxidation as measured by MDA content, and resulted in a greater total root growth after chilling compared to the control. Heat shocks at 40°C, applied to 36 hr germinated seedlings for time periods from 1 to 15 hr, all resulted in an increase in chilling tolerance in a time-dependent manner. The heat shock induction of chilling tolerance is most effective when heat shock was imposed immediately before chilling, but the effect is persistent even 32 hr after heat shock when seedlings are held at 25°C before chilling. The possible mechanism of heat shock effect and its persistence will be discussed in relation to heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzyme systems.
Paul H. Jennings
We have previously shown that both temperature and chemical shocks are capable of inducing chilling tolerance in 24h germinated cucumber seedlings. Using a heat shock temperature of 50°C. it has been demonstrated that a 2 min treatment is most effective in inducing chilling tolerance as measured by root survival growth. However the induced chilling tolerance is transient and disappears if the heat shocked seedlings are held at 25°C for 12h before chilling at 2°C. Older seedlings (36h of germination) are more sensitive to chilling but are still capable of chilling tolerance induction by heat shock. Using chilling as a selective pressure, it is possible to increase chilling tolerance of 24h germinated seedlings.
Karen E. Burr, Stephen J. Wallner, and Richard W. Tinus
Greenhouse-cultured, container-grown seedlings of interior Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) France], Engelmann spruce [Picea engelmannii (Parry) Engelm.], and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum Engelm.) were acclimated and deacclimated to cold in growth chambers over 19 weeks. Heat tolerance and cold hardiness of needles, and bud dormancy, were measured weekly. Heat tolerance of Douglas fir and Engelmann spruce needles increased with development through the first complete annual cycle: new needles on actively growing plants; mature needles, not cold-hardy, on dormant plants; cold-hardy needles on dormant and quiescent plants; and mature, needles, not cold-hardy, on actively growing plants. Heat tolerance of ponderosa pine needles differed in two respects. New needles had an intermediate tolerance level to heat, and fully cold-hardy needles were the least tolerant. Thus, the physiological changes that conferred cold hardiness were not associated with greater heat tolerance in all the conifers tested. In none of these species did the timing of changes in heat tolerance coincide consistently with changes in cold hardiness or bud dormancy.
Xiaozhong Liu and Bingru Huang
Understanding physiological factors that may confer heat tolerance would facilitate breeding for improvement of summer turf quality. The objective of this study was to investigate whether carbohydrate availability contributes to changes in turf quality and root mortality during heat stress in two creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw. (syn. A. palustris Huds.)] cultivars, `L-93' and `Penncross', that contrast in heat tolerance. Grasses were grown at 14-hour days and 11-hour nights of 22/16 °C (control) and 35/25 °C (heat stress) for 56 days in growth chambers. Turf quality decreased while root mortality increased under heat-stress conditions for both cultivars, but to a greater extent for `Penncross' than `L-93'. The concentrations of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC), fructans, starch, glucose, and sucrose in shoots (leaves and stems) and roots decreased at 35/25 °C. The reduction in carbohydrate concentrations of shoots was more pronounced than that of roots. Shoot glucose and sucrose concentrations were more sensitive to heat stress than other carbohydrates. `L-93' maintained significantly higher carbohydrate concentrations, especially glucose and sucrose, than `Penncross' at 35/25 °C. Results suggest that high carbohydrate availability, particularly glucose and sucrose, during heat stress was an important physiological trait associated with heat-stress tolerance in creeping bentgrass.
L. V. Gusta
Plants acclimate to abiotic stresses, e.g. heat, freezing drought and salinity, in response to environmental cues such as temperature, daylength and water. Plants can respond within minutes to the cue e.g. heat tolerance or within hours or days, e.g. drought and freezing tolerance. Heat shock proteins are measurable within 20 to 30 minutes of a heat stress and the plants aclimate almost immediately. In contrast, proteins related to freezing tolerance are measurable within hours but days are required before a measurable increase in freezing tolerance can be detected. In almost all stresses it appears that the environmental cue effects the water status of the plant which in turn affects the level of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA). ABA has been implicated to ameliorate the stress by inducing genes to produce stress proteins. There is a certain degree of commodity between stresses in ragards to stress proteins, however each stress has their own unique set of stress proteins. For example heat shock proteins did not confer stress tolerance. Proteins involved in water and osmotic stress tolerance share a high degree of commonality. I” all stresses a unique class of proteins are synthesized which are classified as heat or boiling stable (do not coagulate at 100°). These proteins are suggested to be involved in the stress response. Many of these heat stable proteins are induced by ABA alone or in combination with jasmonic acid (JA). Analogs of ABA which are either slowly converted to ABA or are degraded slowly or taken up at a faster rate than ABA have been tested for the efficacy in inducing the stress responses. Analogs have also been identified which inhibit the ABA induced response. How these analogs may have practical significance will be discussed.
Katy M. Rainey and Phillip D. Griffiths
The genetic basis for heat tolerance during reproductive development in snap bean was investigated in a heat-tolerant × heat-sensitive common bean cross. Parental, F1, F2, and backcross generations of a cross between the heat-tolerant snap bean breeding line `Cornell 503' and the heat-sensitive wax bean cultivar Majestic were grown in a high-temperature controlled environment (32 °C day/28 °C night), initiated prior to anthesis and continued through plant senescence. During flowering, individual plants of all generations were visually rated and scored for extent of abscission of reproductive organs. The distribution of abscission scores in segregating generations (F2 and backcrosses) indicated that a high rate of abscission in response to heat stress was controlled by a single recessive gene from `Majestic'. Abscission of reproductive organs is the primary determinant of yield under heat stress in many annual grain legumes; this is the first known report of single gene control of this reaction in common bean or similar legumes. Generation means analysis indicated that genetic variation among generations for pod number under heat stress was best explained by a six-parameter model that includes nonallelic interaction terms, perhaps the result of the hypothetical abscission gene interacting with other genes for pod number in the populations. A simple additive/dominance model accounted for genetic variance for seeds per pod. Dominance [h] and epistatic dominance × dominance [l] genetic parameters for yield components under high temperatures were the largest in magnitude. Results suggest `Cornell 503' can improve heat tolerance in sensitive cultivars, and heat tolerance in common bean may be influenced by major genes.
Abbas M. Shirazi, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Tony H.H. Chen
Red-osier dogwood sterns, Cornus sericea L., at ten different growth stages were subjected to a series of temperatures ranging from 25C to 60C by immersing them in a water bath for one hour. After heat treatments, the viability of internode tissues were determined by electrical conductivity and ethylene production. Heat tolerance was expressed as LT50, the temperature at which 50% of the tissues were injured. The results suggest that the LT50 of dormant plants remained relatively constant, approximately 53C. During dormancy, heat stress did not stimulate ethylene production from internode tissues. In contrast, tissues from non-dormant plants exposed to heat stress produced increasing levels of ethylene reaching a peak at 40C followed by a steady decrease at higher temperatures. Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to stem segments from dormant plants, following heat treatment, enhanced production of ethylene.