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S.O. Park, A. Dursun, and D.P. Coyne

Common bacterial blight (CBB), incited by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp), is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Tepary bean (P. acutifolius A. Gray) is of interest to bean breeders because of resistance to CBB. The objective was to identify RAPD markers linked to major dominant genes for CBB resistance and purple flower color using bulked segregant analysis in an F2 population from a tepary bean cross Nebr#19 [resistant (R) to CBB and white flower color] × Nebr#4B [susceptible (S) to CBB and purple flower color]. Ten RAPD primers (600 RAPD primers screened) showed polymorphisms between bulked DNA derived from R and S plants. All markers showed coupling linkage with CBB resistance. The RAPD marker of G-14 primer was 5.2 cM distant from the gene for resistance to Xcp strain LB-2. The RAPD marker of L-18 primer was 6.8 cM distant from the gene for resistance to Xcp strain SC-4A. The RAPD marker of G-14 primer was 26.2 cM distant from the gene for resistance to Xcp strain EK-11. Seven RAPD primers showed polymorphisms between bulked DNA derived from purple and white flower plants. All markers showed coupling linkage with the gene for purple flower color. The RAPD marker of Y-6 primer was 3.6 cM distant from the gene for purple flower color.

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Mark J. Bassett

Plant Introduction (PI) accession 507984 of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has partly colored seed coats and either pure white flowers or light laelia flowers. Crosses were made with white-flowered plants of PI 507984: white-flowered plant #1 × the genetic stock t ers ers2 BC2 5-593 and white-flowered plant #2 × recurrent parent dry bean breeding line 5-593. Inheritance was studied in the F1, F2, and F3 of the former cross and the F1 and F2 of the latter cross. PI 507984 (white flower, plant #1) × t ers ers2 BC2 5-593 gave F1 plants with colored flowers and partly colored seeds. The F2 gave a 9:7 segregation ratio (colored flowers to white flowers), and the genetic model proposed is that flower color is restored in the presence of t/t by two complementary genes, Fcr and Fcr-2. That model was confirmed by F3 progeny tests of 21 F2 parents with colored flowers. The cross PI 507984 (white flower, plant #2) × 5-593 gave an F2 segregation ratio of 9:3:4 (bishops-violet: light laelia: white flowers), indicating that the white-flowered PI 507984 has v lae masked by t. Analysis of all the data suggests that PI 507984 is heterogeneous at Fcr and Fcr-2, having all three possible homozygous genotypes, viz., either light laelia flowers from v lae t Fcr Fcr-2 or white flowers from v lae t Fcr fcr-2 or v lae t fcr Fcr-2. The flower color restoration gene in 5-593 is arbitrarily assigned the symbol Fcr. Great variability occurs in partly colored seeds of PI 507984 due to the environment in which the seed was produced.

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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter, and David A. Knauft

green petioles, and individuals with pink fruit had petioles of intermediate pigmentation. Flower color also corresponded with fruit color. Individuals with pink flowers had purple fruit, whereas individuals with white flowers had white fruit. Flower

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Soon O. Park, Dermot P. Coyne, Nedim Mutlu, James R. Steadman, and Geunhwa Jung

Common bacterial blight, incited by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp), is a serious disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). RAPD markers and flower color (V gene) previously had been reported to be associated with six QTL affecting leaf and pod resistance to Xcp. However, the markers for the QTL were not confirmed in different populations and environments to indicate their merit in breeding. Our objective was to determine if the associations of RAPD markers and the V gene with QTL for leaf and pod resistance to Xcp in a RI backcross population from the cross BC2F6 `PC-50' × XAN-159 and for leaf resistance to Xcp in a F2 population from a different cross Pinto `Chase' × XAN-159 could be confirmed. Among six QTL previously detected, five in the RI backcross population and three in the F2 population were confirmed to be associated with resistance to Xcp. The V gene and RAPD marker BC437.1050 on linkage group 5 were most consistently associated with leaf and pod resistance to two to five XCP strains in the RI backcross population and with leaf resistance to two Xcp strains in the F2 population. The confirmed marker BC437.1050 and V gene on linkage group 5, along with other resistance genes from other germplasm, could be used to pyramid the different genes into a bean cultivar to enhance the resistance to Xcp.

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Soon O. Park, Dermot P. Coyne, Nedim Mutlu, Geunhwa Jung, and James R. Steadman

Common bacterial blight, incited by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp) is a serious disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and flower color (V gene) previously were reported to be associated with six quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting leaf and pod resistance to Xcp. However, the markers for the QTL were not confirmed in different populations and environments to indicate their merit in breeding. The objective was to determine if the associations of RAPD markers and the V gene with QTL for leaf and pod resistance to Xcp in a recombinant inbred (RI) backcross population from the cross BC2F6 `PC-50' × XAN-159 and for leaf resistance to Xcp in an F2 population from a different cross pinto `Chase' × XAN-159 could be confirmed. One or two genes from XAN-159 controlled leaf and pod resistance to Xcp. Among six QTL previously detected, five in the RI backcross population and three in the F2 population were confirmed to be associated with resistance to Xcp. The V gene and RAPD marker BC437.1050 on linkage group 5 were most consistently associated with leaf and pod resistance to two to five Xcp strains in the RI backcross population and with leaf resistance to two Xcp strains in the F2 population. One to three QTL affecting leaf and pod resistance to Xcp accounted for 22% to 61% of the phenotypic variation. Gene number (one to two) estimations and number of QTL (one to three) detected for leaf and pod resistance to Xcp in the RI backcross population were generally in agreement. The marker BC437.1050 and V gene, along with other resistance genes from other germplasm, could be utilized to pyramid the different genes into a susceptible or partially resistant bean line or cultivar to enhance the level of resistance to Xcp.

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Mark J. Bassett

The genetics of the vermilion flower color (more orange than scarlet or salmon red) of Phaseolus coccineus L. is largely unknown, but the gene Sal for salmon red is the gene essential for its expression. Lamprecht line M0169 (PI 527868) expresses salmon red flowers with vein pattern on the wing petals and black seedcoats. M0169 (Sal Am and an unknown gene that inhibits the scarlet flower color expression of Am) was crossed with v BC3 5-593 (sal am and no inhibitor gene, expressing white flowers and mineral brown seedcoats). Line 5-593 is a Florida dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) line used as the recurrent parent for development of genetic stocks. The F2 from Sal Am V wf BC1 5-593 (scarlet flowers, black seedcoats) × v BC3 5-593 (white flowers, mineral brown seedcoats) supported the hypothesis that a partly dominant gene Am changes salmon red to scarlet flower color and that Am has no expression with sal. The F3 progeny test of 27 random F2 parents from the above cross supported the hypothesis of a single partly dominant factor (Am) with no expression without Sal, where only Sal/Sal Am/Am completely eliminates the flower vein pattern (VP) of Sal. F4 progeny tests of 29 random F3 parents derived from a F2 selection with Sal/Sal Am/am V wf/v supported the hypothesis that Am is linked to V (cM = 9.4 ± 1.93) and the hypothesis that Am is linked with a dominant gene (tentative symbol Oxb) that (with Sal v) changes seedcoat color from mineral brown with red haze to oxblood red. Another F4 progeny test of seven selected F3 parents with Sal/Sal Am/am v/v and oxblood seedcoat color supported the hypothesis that the Oxb gene (linked with Am and derived from M0169) with Sal v expresses oxblood seedcoat color. The gene symbol Am is proposed for the gene from M0169 that with Sal v expresses two pleiotropic effects: changes salmon red to scarlet flower color and eliminates the VP of salmon red. The interaction of Sal with Am for flower color and VP expression is discussed for all gene combinations.

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Mark J. Bassett

A new gene for flower color pattern, designated white banner (WB), appeared in material derived from the cross `Harvester' snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) × Plant Introduction (PI) accession 273666 of scarlet runner bean (P. coccineus L.). The WB character has a white banner petal and pale violet wings (veronica-violet 639/2). The inheritance of the mutant was studied in crosses involving dry bean breeding line 5-593, which has bishops-violet (wild-type) flowers, and genetic stocks v BC2 5-593 (white flowers) and blu BC2 5-593 (blue flowers). Segregation in F2 and F3 progenies from the cross v BC2 5-593 × WB supported the hypothesis that WB is controlled by a single recessive gene that is nonallelic with the V locus. An allelism test with blu BC2 5-593 gave evidence that WB is not allelic with the blu locus. The gene symbol wb is proposed for the gene producing WB.

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Kenneth R. Tourjee, James Harding, and Thomas G. Byrne

The frequency distribution of gerbera flower hue in the Davis Population of Gerbera appears continuous and bimodal. This suggests that a gene of large effect may be segregating in a background of polygenic variation. CSA is a statistical technique developed in genetic epidemiology for investigating such complex traits, without the need of inbred lines. The REGC program of SAGE (Elston, LSU Med. Center, New Orleans) utilizes the regressive models of G. Bonney (1984) through pedigree analysis to provide estimates of major gene parameters and residual correlations among relatives. Pedigrees obtained from generations 14, 15, and 16 indicate that a major dominant gene for hue is segregating and accounting for ∼ 0.66 of the total variation. The genotypic means are 32 degrees and 71 degrees for the aa and bb genotypes, respectively. The `a' allele is dominant to the `b' allele and has a frequency of 0.55. The residual parent-offspring correlation estimate is 0.2, and measures the genetic contribution to the remainder of the variance.

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Kenneth R. Tourjee, James Harding, and Thomas G. Byrne

The frequency distribution of gerbera flower hue in the Davis population of gerbera appears continuous and bimodal. This suggests that a gene of large effect may be segregating in a background of polygenic variation. CSA is a statistical technique developed in genetic epidemiology for investigating such complex traits without the need of inbred lines. The REGC program of SAGE (Elston, LSU Medical Center, New Orleans) uses the regressive models of G. Bonney (1984) through pedigree analysis to provide estimates of major gene parameters and residual correlations among relatives. Pedigrees obtained from generations 14, 15, and 16 indicate that a major dominant gene for hue is segregating and accounting for -0.66 of the total variation. The genotypic means are 32 degrees and 71 degrees for the aa and bb genotypes, respectively. The a allele is dominant to the b allele and has a frequency of 0.55. The residual parent-offspring correlation estimate is 0.2 and measures the genetic contribution to the remainder of the variance.

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Richard M. Klein

In order to determine whether the concentration of floral petal anthocyanin pigments could be increased, ultraviolet radiations in the UV-A and UV-B wavelength bands were presented to a variety of flowering plants to partly restore those wavelengths filtered out by greenhouse glass. In no tested plant did the supplementary ultraviolet radiation enhance floral anthocyanin content. Supplementary UV radiation has no economic value in greenhouse production of flowering plants.