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Kay Oakley, Mary Witt, and Robert L. Geneve

140 ORAL SESSION 39 (Abstr. 651–655) Computer Technology Applications in Extension Horticulture

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Ellen M. Bauske, Gary R. Bachman, Lucy Bradley, Karen Jeannette, Alison Stoven O’Connor, and Pamela J. Bennett

One of the greatest challenges for consumer horticulture specialists and extension agents is communicating effectively with their broad audiences. Even when narrowed to home and community food gardening, the target audience is immense. In 2008, 31

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James R. Ballington, Barclay Poling, and Kerry Olive

plants. In Virginia, Pattison and Wolf (2007) have evaluated protected culture for season extension and report that a 7.3 × 60.9 tobacco greenhouse or high tunnel planted a density of ≈10 plants/m 2 can yield 619 g/plant for an approximate 60-d period

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Naomi Hirsch and Louise Ferguson

140 ORAL SESSION 39 (Abstr. 651–655) Computer Technology Applications in Extension Horticulture

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Eric T. Stafne

Since late Mar. 2020, many universities halted normal operations due to the COVID-19 pandemic, forcing faculty and other educators to use new, digital methods of educational delivery. Although extension uses many different techniques to educate

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James McConnell and Mari Marutani

17 POSTER SESSION 1 (Abstr. 400-420A) Education/Extension

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Gary W. Knox and Glenn D. Israel

106 POSTER SESSION (Abstr. 508–518) Teaching and Extension Methodology

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Pamela J. Bennett, Ellen M. Bauske, Alison Stoven O’Connor, Jean Reeder, Carol Busch, Heidi A. Kratsch, Elizabeth Leger, Angela O’Callaghan, Peter J. Nitzsche, and Jim Downer

extension staff and faculty to provide research-based gardening information to the public. The EMG training program has spread to all 50 states, the District of Columbia and four Canadian provinces ( National Master Gardener Committee, 2013 ). Today, most

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Laura A. Warner, Anil Kumar Chaudhary, and Sebastian Galindo-Gonzalez

irrigation practices and technologies in the residential landscape has been identified as an opportunity for water conservation, and therefore, people who use irrigation at home represent an important audience for the Cooperative Extension Service ( Warner et

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S.S. Snapp

Extension services around the globe face increasingly limited financial support, yet rural populations require services, training and access to information. In sub-Saharan African countries the demands are particularly severe. Farmer to extension staff ratios are generally over 2000 to 1 and resource constraints are severe, which greatly restricts outreach efforts. Examples are presented of recent innovations from the southern Africa country of Malawi. These include collaboration across private and public institutions. Some extension agents have shifted from a transferring technology mode to a catalytic role where agents help link up diverse stakeholders, from farmers and researchers to potential buyers and input suppliers. Extension has helped farmers respond to new market opportunities, including a food colorant, the paprika pepper (Capsicum annuum), and a multi-use grain and vegetable, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Product quality is critical for these markets and industry organizations have invested in training that involves government extension staff, private crop advisors and farmers. A collaborative team approach across industry, nongovernmental organizations and government services has facilitated farmer access to inputs, new cultivars and training in improved crop management and post-harvest techniques. Many challenges remain, such as outreach to farmers located far from infrastructure and those with limited formal education or no experience with entrepreneurship. Extension must continue to reinvent itself to reach all farmers.