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Ben Hong Wu, Hai Qiang Huang, Pei Ge Fan, Shao Hua Li, and Guo Jie Liu

functionality of the thylakoid membrane ( Berry and Björkman, 1980 ; Pastenes and Horton, 1996 ). The excessive energy with high PAR under low sink demand also could lead to the damage of PSII reaction-centers and decrease electron transport efficiency and

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ZhaoSen Xie, Charles F. Forney, WenPing Xu, and ShiPing Wang

-Tal et al., 1995 ; Wang et al., 1998, 2001 ). The rate of phloem unloading serves as a key determinant of crop yield and plant productivity ( Fisher and Oparka, 1996 ; Patrick, 1997 ). The unloading pathway is a central process of the unloading

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Ritu Dhir, Richard L. Harkess, and Guihong Bi

( Groot et al., 1997 ). Total pheophytins content was less in ‘Butterfly’ than ‘Beach’ ( Table 3 ), indicating fewer electron carriers in the photosynthetic electron transport chain in the bleaching-susceptible cultivar Butterfly. A heat-induced block of

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Sorkel Kadir, Michael Von Weihe, and Kassim Al-Khatib

The photosystem II reaction center is the most sensitive reaction center in photosynthesis to heat stress ( Wen et al., 2005 ). Heat stress decreases photosynthetic electron transport activity and variable fluorescence and maximum fluorescence (Fv

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Yoshio Makino, Masayuki Ichimura, Yoshinori Kawagoe, and Seiichi Oshita

.K. 2002 Modelling respiration rate of fresh fruits and vegetables for modified atmosphere packaging: a review J. Food Eng. 52 99 119 Griffiths, D.E. Wharton, D.C. 1961 Studies of the electron transport system. XXXV

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Zengqiang Ma, Shishang Li, Meijun Zhang, Shihao Jiang, and Yulan Xiao

) and calculated using the formula of Moran (1982) . The ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (F v /F m ) and electron transport rate (ETR) were measured and calculated with a Maxi-Imaging-PAM chlorophyll fluorescence measuring system

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Desmond G. Mortley, Conrad K. Bonsi, Walter A. Hill, Carlton E. Morris, Carol S. Williams, Ceyla F. Davis, John W. Williams, Lanfang H. Levine, Barbara V. Petersen, and Raymond M. Wheeler

, 1% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer, pH = 7.2) at room temperature (modified from Karnovsky, 1968 ) and transported back to Tuskegee University for electron microscopy evaluations. Air samples were collected from the headspace

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Lauren Fessler, Amy Fulcher, Liesel Schneider, Wesley C. Wright, and Heping Zhu

because trees are generally devoid of branches within 1 m of ground level ( Hong et al., 2018 ), application inefficiencies caused by overapplication and off-target application are compounded in nurseries. For example, even at a reduced rate of 700 L⋅ha −1

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Giovanni A. Caputo, Phillip A. Wadl, Lambert McCarty, Jeff Adelberg, Katherine M. Jennings, and Matthew Cutulle

necessary to protect themselves from the depletion of the substrate caused by bentazon-inhibited photosynthesis. Melatonin safener. Bentazon competes with plastoquinone for the binding site on the D1 protein, thus blocking electron transport from photosystem

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Eric Curry

approximately the same size were removed from 10 trees from each treated row. Fruit were transported to the laboratory and kept at 1.1 °C until further examination. Each apple was rated for russet severity (percent of fruit surface) by location (stem end or