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J.A. Anchondo, M.M. Wall, V.P. Gutschick, and D.W. Smith

Growth and yield responses of `New Mexico 6-4' and `NuMex R Naky' chile pepper [Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum (Longum Group)] to four Fe levels were studied under sand culture. A balanced nutrient solution (total nutrient concentration <2 mmol·L-1) was recirculated continuously to plants potted in acid-washed sand from the seedling stage to red fruit harvest. Plants received 1, 3, 10 or 30 μm Fe as ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate). Plant growth was determined by leaf area, specific leaf area [(SLA), leaf area per unit dry weight of leaves], instantaneous leaf photosynthetic rates, and dry matter partitioning. Low Fe (1 or 3 μm Fe) in the nutrient solution was associated with lower relative growth rates (RGR), increased SLA, and higher root to shoot ratios (3 μm Fe plants only) at final harvest. High Fe levels (10 or 30 μm Fe) in the nutrient solution were associated with an increased yield of red fruit and total plant dry matter. RGR of low-Fe young chile plants was reduced before any chlorotic symptoms appeared.

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John J. McGrady and Donald J. Cotter

Abstract

Pregerminated (PG) chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed was fluid-drilled in gels on three dates (early to late spring). Plants grown from PG seed emerged earlier than those from dry seed, and plant growth was enhanced (including earlier flowering), but the fruit yields were not affected. In the first planting date in cold soils, PG slowed emergence and the hypocotyls tended to coil within the gel. In a companion test, pre-soaking seed improved emergence, growth, and yield compared to plants from dry seed. Adding P to the soaking solution enhanced emergence, early plant growth, and plant P, but decreased fruit yields. Phosphorus added to the gel water of hydration increased seedling growth, but did not significantly affect fruit yields.

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Kevin M. Crosby, Justin Butcher, Kil Sun Yoo, and Daniel I. Leskovar

viruses but has smaller fruit size than current industry standards. ‘TAM Ben Villalon’ originated from a cross of ‘TAM Mild Chile-2’ and ‘Arabel’, a large, sweet, elongated (16 cm × 5 cm) Spanish lamuyo-type pepper. The pedigree method was used from the F

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Israel S. Joukhadar, Stephanie J. Walker, and Paul A. Funk

296 309 10.1080/19315260.2010.549167 Gandonou, J.M. Waliczek, T.M. 2013 An analysis of the recent trends in U.S. chile pepper production, consumption and imports J. Food Agr. Environ. 11 361 367 Hawkes, J. Libbin, J. Jones, B. 2008 Chile production in

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J.A. Anchondo, M.M. Wall, V.P. Gutschick, and D.W. Smith

Pigment and micronutrient concentrations of New Mexico 6-4 and NuMex R Naky chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars as affected by low Fe levels were studied under soilless culture. A custom-designed, balanced nutrient solution (total concentration <2 mm) was continuously recirculated to the plants potted in acid-washed sand (pot volume 15.6 L). Each set of plants from each cultivar received iron concentrations at 1, 3, 10, and 30 μm Fe as Fe-EDDHA. The pigments of leaves, green fruit, and red fruit were extracted with acetone and measured with a spectrophotometer. Surface color of green and red fruit was measured with a chromameter. Total concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, P, and K of leaf blades and red fruit were measured by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). Ferrous iron in leaf blades, and NO3-N in petioles also were determined. Iron nutrition level affected total leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content at early season, and the level of these pigments in green fruit at second harvest. No differences in extractable or surface color of red fruit were found among iron treatments in the nutrient solution, despite variations in red fruit iron content, total foliar iron, and foliar ferrous iron. Higher levels of iron in the nutrient solution increased both ferrous and total iron of the leaves, but depressed foliar Cu and P. High iron supply also increased fruit iron, and decreased fruit Cu content. High iron levels in the nutrient solution were associated with higher concentrations of leaf pigments at early season and higher pigment concentration in green fruit.

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Rebecca Creamer, Soumaila Sanogo, Osama A. El-Sebai, Jared Carpenter, and Robert Sanderson

Mexico Chile Commission, the New Mexico Chile Task Force, and the New Mexico State University Agricultural Experiment Station for their support of this work.

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Fred T. Davies Jr., Sharon A. Duray, Lop Phavaphutanon, and Randy Stahl

The influence of P nutrition on gas exchange, plant development, and nutrient uptake of Capsicum annuum chile ancho `San Luis' and bell pepper `Jupiter' plants was studied. Plants were fertilized weekly using 250 ml of a modified Long-Ashton solution, containing 0, 11, 22, 44, 66 or 88 μg P/ml. Phosphorus stress was evident with both pepper cultivars at 0 and 11 μg P/ml, with reduced plant growth and development: leaf number and area and fruit, leaf, stem, root, shoot, and total plant dry weight. The root: shoot ratio was greatest at 0 μg P/ml, reflecting greater dry matter partitioning to the root system. Greater P stress occurred at 0 μg·ml–1 in `San Luis' compared to `Jupiter' (88% vs. 58% reduction in total plant dry weight compared to optimum P response). `San Luis' was also more sensitive to P stress at 11 μg P/ml than `Jupiter', as indicated by the greater reduction in growth responses. With increasing P nutrition, leaf tissue P increased in both cultivars with maximum leaf tissue P at 88 μg P/ml. In `San Luis', there were no differences in tissue P between plants treated with 0 and 11 μg P/ml, whereas the `Jupiter' plants treated with 0 μg P/ml had the lowest tissue P. Low P plants generally had the highest tissue N and lowest S, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, Mo, and Al. With both cultivars, gas exchange was lowest at 0 μg P/ml, as indicated by low transpiration (E), stomatal conductance (gs), and net photosynthesis (A). Internal CO2 (Cj) and vapor pressure deficit were generally highest at 0 μg P/ml, indicating that Cj was accumulating with lower gs, E, and A in these P-stressed plants. Generally, no P treatments exceeded the gas exchange levels obtained by 44 μg P/ml (full strength LANS) plants.

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Fred T. Davies Jr., Sharon A. Duray, Lop Phavaphutanon, and Randy Stahl

In two separate experiments, the influence of phosphorus nutrition on gas exchange, plant development, and nutrient uptake of Capsicum annuum chile ancho `San Luis' and bell pepper `Jupiter' plants were studied. Plants were fertilized weekly using 250 ml of a modified Long–Ashton solution (LANS) containing 0, 11, 22, 44, 66, or 88 μg P/ml. Phosphorus stress was evident with both pepper cultivars at 0 and 11 μg P/ml, with reduced plant growth and development: leaf number and area, fruit, leaf, stem, root, shoot, and total plant dry weight. The root: shoot ratio was greatest at 0 μg P/ml, reflecting greater dry matter partitioning to the root system. Greater phosphorus stress occurred at 0 μg P/ml in `San Luis' compared to `Jupiter' (88% vs. 58% reduction in total plant dry weight compared to optimum P response). `San Luis' was also more sensitive to phosphorus stress at 11 μg P/ml than `Jupiter' as indicated by the greater reduction in growth responses. With increasing P nutrition, leaf tissue P increased in both cultivars with maximum leaf tissue P at 88 μg P/ml. In `San Luis', there were no differences in tissue P between 0 and 11 μg P/ml plants, whereas 0 μg P/ml `Jupiter' plants had the lowest tissue P. Low P plants generally had the highest tissue N and lowest S, Fe, Mn, Zn B, Mo, and Al. With both cultivars, gas exchange was lowest at 0 μg P/ml, as indicated by low transpiration (E), stomatal conductance (gs), and net photosynthesis (A). Internal CO2 (Ci) and vapor pressure deficit were generally highest at 0 μg P/ml, indicating that Ci was accumulating with lower gs, E, and A in these phosphorus-stressed plants. Generally, no P treatments exceeded the gas exchange levels obtained by 44 μg P/ml (full strength LANS) plants.

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Andres A. Estrada-Luna, Fred T. Davies Jr., and Jonathan N. Egilla

The role of mycorrhiza fungi during acclimatization and post-acclimatization of micropropagated chile ancho plantlets was characterized through physiological and plantlet development changes. Regardless of mycorrhizal colonization, the pepper plantlets had initially low photosynthetic rates and poor growth following transplanting ex vitro. During the first days of acclimatization, water deficits occurred as evidenced by drastic reductions in relative water content. Consequently, transpiration rates and stomatal conductance (gs) declined, confirming that in vitro formed stomata were functional, thus avoiding excessive leaf dehydration and plant death. Mycorrhiza had a positive effect on gas exchange as early as day 7 and 8, as indicated by increasing photosynthesis (A) and gs. Mycorrhizal plantlets had reduced levels of abscisic acid (ABA) during peak stress (6 days after transplanting ex vitro), which corresponded with subsequent increases in gs and A. During acclimatization, A increased in both non-colonized and colonized plantlets, with greater rates observed in mycorrhizal plantlets. During post-acclimatization, mycorrhiza colonized 45% of the roots of pepper plantlets and enhanced plant growth by increasing leaf area, leaf dry mass, and fruit number. Mycorrhiza also enhanced total leaf chlorophyll content, A, and nutrient uptake of pepper plantlets, particularly N, P, and K. Early mycorrhizal colonization produced important benefits, which helped ex vitro transplanted plantlets recover during acclimatization and enhance physiological performance and growth during post-acclimatization.

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F.T. Davies Jr., V. Olalde-Portueal, H. M. Escamilla, R.C. Ferrera, and M.J. Alvarado

In a 3 × 3 factorial experiment, Chile Ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. San Luis) plants were inoculated or not with VA - mycorrhizal (VAM) Glomus fasciculatum and a Glomus sps isolate from Mexico (ZAC-19). Long Ashton Nutrient solution (LANS) were modified to supply P at II, 22 or 44 μg/ml to containerized plants, grown in a greenhouse for 72 days. The container medium was a modified 77% sand, 13% silt, 9% clay soil collected from an agricultural production site in Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico. Both P and VAM enhanced plant growth and development. Increasing P enhanced leaf area, fruit, shoot and root dry weight and shoot/root ratio; the leaf area ratio (LAR) decreased. Greater VAM growth enhancement occurred at Il and 22, than 44 μg/ml P. Growth enhancement was greater with Glomus fasciculatum than the mixed Glomus sps isolate (ZAC - 19).