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Gary J. Keever

Eight species of container-grown woody landscape plants received a single foliar spray of 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg a.i. ASC-66952 ·liter-1 on 13 June 1990. (ASC-66952 is a proprietary chemical being developed by ISK-Biotech.) Axillary, rhizomatous, and total shoot numbers of `Harbour Dwarf' nandina were increased with increasing concentrations of ASC-66952. Relative to those of the control plants, axillary shoot numbers were increased from 350% with 25 mg·liter-1 to 950% with 200 mg·liter-1, while rhizomatous shoot numbers were increased 144% with the lowest concentration and 477% with the highest concentration. Growth indices were decreased from 2.1% with 25 mg·liter-1 to 9.7% with 200 mg·liter-1. Branching and growth indices of other species tested were minimally affected by ASC-66952 application.

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Charlotte M. Guimond, Preston K. Andrews, and Gregory A. Lang

Young sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees are typically upright, vegetatively vigorous, and nonprecocious, taking 5 to 6 years to come into production. To produce fruit in high-density orchards by year 3 or 4, development of lateral shoots for potential fruiting is critical in year 2 or 3. An experiment was designed to promote lateral branching on 2-year-old trees. The experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard in Roosevelt, Wash., with `Bing' and `Van' on the vigorous rootstocks Mazzard and Colt. The trees were planted at 415 trees per acre with three scaffolds trained into a “V” canopy design. The experimental variables were treatments with and without Promalin (1.8% BAP plus 1.8% GA4+7), applied at a ratio of 1:3 in latex paint at green tip stage; superimposed on these treatments were either heading cuts of each scaffold to 2 m long (or tipping the scaffold if it was <2 m), removing four to five buds subtending the terminal bud, a combination of heading and bud removal, or controls. On trees that were not treated with Promalin, three additional treatments included either removing subtending buds at budbreak, or removing buds at multiple locations along the scaffold at green tip or at budbreak. New lateral shoots were counted 4 weeks after budbreak, and the quality of the shoots (shoot diameter and angle of emergence) was measured at the time of summer pruning. Interactions between Promalin, bud manipulation, and pruning will be discussed in relation to development of canopy structure.

Open access

Wei Hai Yang, Chao Zhong Lu, Wei Chen, and Huan Yu Xu

; Li et al., 2015 ). Girdling, defined as the removal of a ring of bark around the branches or trunk, is an important technique and has been widely used to improve fruit retention and increase fruit yield ( Annabi et al., 2019 ; Goren et al., 2003

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Nihad Alsmairat, Philip Engelgau, and Randolph Beaudry

instance, is consumed in the synthesis of several amino acids including lysine, methionine, and threonine, the latter of which is a precursor to isoleucine ( Azevedo et al., 1997 ). Branched-chain (BC) esters are important contributors to the fruity aroma

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S.A. Oosthuyse, G. Jacobs, and D.K. Strydom

Upright l-year-old apple (Malus domestica Borkh. `Granny Smith') branches were headed at 14-day intervals (branches headed once each) during late winter and in spring [70 days before full-bloom (DBFB) until 28 days after full-bloom (DAFB)] and budbreak and new shoot growth quantified on the remaining branch section after cessation of these events. When heading was performed 70, 56, or 42 DBFB, four to five buds broke on average. When branches were headed subsequently, the average number of buds breaking increased progressively, then decreased with heading date, the maximum number breaking (13) on branches headed 14 DAFB. An average of 10 or 11 buds broke per branch section when heading was performed 28 DAFB. In late summer, the total length of new shoots per branch section for the branches headed before full bloom averaged 113 cm, whereas that on the branches headed at or after full-bloom averaged 76 cm.

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Thomas E. Marler and Jonathan H. Crane

Lateral branches arising from the primary bud complex on limbs of containerized `Gefner' atemoya (Annona squamosa L. × A. cherimola Mill.) plants were removed to determine the influence of branch regrowth on the crotch angle. Pruning the lateral branches to a stub (cl cm) was more effective in inducing regrowth and increasing branch angle of the regrowth than stripping lateral branches by hand. Following lateral branch removal, regrowth did not develop from every node along a stem axis. In a second study, the angle of branch regrowth from tagged nodes following pruning of lateral branches was determined. The mean crotch angle of the primary lateral branches was 58°. Regrowth from the second and third supernumerary buds within each node produced branches with an average crotch angle of 72° and 88°, respectively. The largest increase in attachment angle following pruning was obtained at nodes with narrow primary lateral branches and at nodes located closest to the base of a major axis. The increase in branch crotch angle was not correlated with the size of the preceding lateral branch at a node. These results indicate that pruning off lateral branches with narrow crotch angles may be performed during training atemoya plants to produce scaffold limbs from supernumerary buds within the same nodes with desirably wide crotch angles.

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J.E. Preece, C.A. Huetteman, R.G. Adams, W.C. Ashby, and P.L. Roth

Whole-tree branch architecture was quantified by counting and measuring the lengths of main stems, basal branches, and all primary (1°), secondary (2°), and tertiary (3°) branches. Trees were grown in replicated clonal plantations established in 1991 on a southern Illinois lowland and an upland site. Fifty-two clones in each of five complete blocks were measured from each plantation. Number of primary branches that formed in 1991, 1992, and 1993, and the number of nodes in the terminal meter of growth were highly significant for silver maple provenance and for clones (four clones for each of 13 provenances), except that clonal differences were nonsignificant for the number of 1° branches on 1991 wood. There were significant effects of provenance and clone on total number and the various sizes of 2° and 3° branches. Generally, a greater number and longer length of 2° and 3° branches formed on trees from the more rapidly growing southern provenances.

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Petra Sternberg and Daniel K. Struve

In nursery production, increased branching is desirable, especially when growing stock that will be marketed at smaller sizes. Typically, branching is increased by pruning, which reduces growth potential. As an alternative to mechanical pruning, a chemical branching agent, Cyclanilide, has been evaluated for its ability to increase branching in container-grown whip production systems. Cyclanilide sprays of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg·L-1 were applied to elongating shoots of Acer ×freemanii `Jeffsred', Cercis canadensis, Diospyros virginiana, Eucommia ulmoides, Malus ×`Prairie Fire', Malus ×`Harvest Gold', and Quercus rubra whips. Branching was increased in all taxa except Eucommia at concentrations >100 mg·L-1, without significantly reducing plant dry weight. For Diospyros, branching was increased when combined with pruning before Cyclanilide application.

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Michelle L. Jones, Kenneth K. Cochran, Gary A. Anderson, and David C. Ferree

Deciduous holly branches were visually rated over a period of 5 weeks to evaluate differences in display life between various cultivars of winterberry (Ilex verticillata) and japanese winterberry (I. serrata) x winterberry. Holly branches were naturally defoliated and the postharvest performance of the cut branches was therefore based on the quality and longevity of the fruit. Chemical treatments including floral preservative, floral preservative plus silver, and anti-transpirant were also evaluated. `Bonfire' and `Sunset' had the highest ratings for marketability based on the longevity and quality of their fruit. `Bonfire' and `Winter Red' had the highest fruit density per stem. Treatment with floral preservatives significantly increased the display life of holly branches. Preservative plus silver delayed deterioration later in the study, presumably by delaying the senescence of the fruit. Anti-transpirant treatment did not decrease solution uptake by the holly stems. Cold storage of dry branches at 0.00 ± 1.11 °C (32.0 ± 2.0 °F) did not significantly reduce branch display life if held for 23 days or less. Cut branches of all cultivars had a longer display life when stuck in sand and left outdoors in a lath house than when rated in vase solutions indoors. This study indicates that deciduous holly branches provide an attractive alternative cut branch for both interior and outdoor holiday displays.

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David R. Ouellette, C.R. Unrath, and Eric Young

One-year-old unbranched `Empire' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees on Malling 26 EMLA and Malling–Merton 111 EMLA rootstocks were planted in Nov. 1991 or Mar. 1992 at an eastern Piedmont or mountain site of North Carolina. In Mar. 1992 and 1993, trees were dormant-headed and then subjected to one of five branch-inducing techniques: 1) control—untouched, 2) notching—removing a thin band of bark above each lateral bud, 3) leaf removal—periodic removal of immature apical leaves, 4) bending—placing at horizontal and setting upright in summer, or 5) renewal—setting a lateral branch upright as the new leader. The second year (1993), half of the trees were periodically sprayed with Promalin (GA4+7 + BA). At the Piedmont site, notching, leaf removal, and bending resulted in more branching than the control after 1 year. At the mountain site, leaf removal was considerably less effective in inducing branches. Bending produced asymmetric trees and, at the mountain site, considerably reduced terminal shoot growth. Planting date had little influence on branching. Two years after planting, notched trees were significantly larger and had twice as many branches as other trees. Promalin increased branching on current-season growth and, when combined with leaf removal, resulted in the most uniform distribution of branches along the length of the central leader. Using notching or Promalin produced a tree structure suitable for high-density plantings. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (BA), gibberellins A4 + A7 (GA4+7).