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Bin Wu, Runshi Xie, Gary W. Knox, Hongmin Qin, and Mengmeng Gu

Crapemyrtle bark scale [CMBS ( Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae )] is a sap-sucking hemipteran native to some Asian countries ( Kozár et al., 2013 ). Since initially detected and identified in Texas in 2004 ( Merchant et al., 2014 ), the CMBS has

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, Jake F. Browder, J. Roger Harris, and Alex X. Niemiera

). Of these, research and development of new substrates to replace conventionally used peatmoss and pine bark (PB) substrates have increased in recent years. In addition to developing and using new substrates, much work has focused on managing fertility

Open access

Robert D. Wright

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the availability of N from urea applied to a pine bark container medium. Results showed that negligible amounts of urea are adsorbed to a pine bark medium compared to NH4-N. However, 71% of the urea applied was hydrolyzed to NH4 within 24 hr and 95% within 40 hr. The rapid hydrolysis would allow N from urea to be available for plant uptake or adsorption to bark soon after application, making urea an acceptable source of N for a pine bark medium.

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and John R. Seiler

Beginning in the early 1970s, the search for organic soilless substrates for container production has been an important horticultural research topic with the introduction of hardwood and softwood barks as the primary component in nursery container

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Edna Tanne, N. Shlamovitz, and P. Spiegel-Roy

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) explant shoots indexed forcorky-bark and rootstocks from healthy LN33 indicator plants were sterilized and maintained in vitro. When infected shoot tips were micrografted onto LN33 shoots, typical corky-bark symptoms appeared in 8 to 12 weeks. We suggest developing this method further to replace the regular, 2-year indexing procedure.

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Nastaran Basiri Jahromi, Forbes Walker, Amy Fulcher, James Altland, and Wesley C. Wright

diffusion across concentration gradients, and the interaction with bark particle exchange sites ( Hoskins et al., 2014a ). Therefore, biochar may influence nutrients leaching from a soilless substrate. Biochar can have a substantial impact on the release and

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R.A. Mirabello, A.E. Einert, and G.L. Klingaman

The use of shredded bark, wood chips, and other organic mulches to conserve water and moderate soil temperatures is a common practice in landscape maintenance. Four mulch materials (cottonseed hulls, cypress pulp, pine bark, and pine straw) were examined to determine effects on plant growth and soil conditions in annual flower beds during a 1-year rotation of warm season to cool season annuals. Inhibited plant growth was observed in pine bark treatments at the conclusion of the growing season for both plantings. Effects on soil conditions were insignificant over the year-long study in pine bark treatments. To further investigate potential phytotoxic effects of pine bark and other mulch used in the initial study, a seed bioassay was performed to determine the influence of mulch extracts in solution on germination and primary root elongation.

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M.P. Bañados, M.S. Santiago, and C. Eterovic

The main form of nitrogen reserves during overwintering are amino acids and proteins. Specific proteins called bark storage proteins (BSP) have been characterized in many tree species. To identify BSPs in `O'Henry' peach, `Angeleno' plum, and `Early Burlat' cherry trees, samples of bark were collected from January through December 1993 from trees growing under field conditions in Santiago, Chile. SDS-PAGE analyses were used to characterize the seasonal variation on the protein pattern on the bark of those Prunus species. A 60 kDa BSP was identified in the bark of all three species, which corresponds to the main protein present in the bark during the winter. This protein may play an important role as a nitrogen reserve in these fruit trees.

Open access

W.J. Foster, R.D. Wright, M.M. Alley, and T.H. Yeager

Abstract

Pine bark was shown to adsorb 1.5 mg of N/g of bark when NH4 solutions were leached through the bark. Increasing pH of bark increased adsorbed NH4. At pH 3.3, only NH4 was adsorbed to bark particles when a fertilizer solution containing NH4, Ca, K, and Mg was applied. However, adsorption of NH4 and other cations increased as pH was increased from 3.8 to 5.8. These data indicate that 2 types of sites exist for the adsorption of NH4 to pine bark. One site is effective at lower pH; the other is active as pH increases. Daily application of 2.5 cm of water containing 50 ppm NH4 required 20 days for equilibration to occur so as to satisfy all binding sites. Thus, incorporation of NH4 into a pine-bark medium prior to planting may be advisable to prevent low N levels from occurring in the container solution due to NH4 binding when plants are first planted and fertilized.

Open access

D. F. Wagner and J. C. Neal

Abstract

Coal cinders with pine bark were evaluated as containerized plant growing medium. Rhododendron obtusum Lindl. ‘Hinodegiri’ liners were grown in several combinations of media composed of pine bark mixed with an aged and a recently combusted source of cinders. Measurements of media pH, soluble salts, NO3 –N, NH4 + –N, and 19 extractable nutrient and metallic ions were obtained. Leaf tissue samples were analyzed for 19 elements. Top dry weight, visual growth and chlorosis ratings, and root visual ratings constituted the plant growth parameters measured. Satisfactory growth was generated in pine bark amended with up to 50% cinders from either source.