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Morgan L. Cromwell, Lorraine P. Berkett, Heather M. Darby, and Takamaru Ashikaga

in turn may restrict or prevent formation of fruit buds for the next year ( Jones and Aldwinckle, 1990 ). Of the fungicides approved for use under organic apple certification standards such as those recommended by the Organic Materials Review

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Marco Fontanelli, Michel Pirchio, Christian Frasconi, Luisa Martelloni, Michele Raffaelli, Andrea Peruzzi, Nicola Grossi, Lisa Caturegli, Simone Magni, Monica Gaetani, and Marco Volterrani

al., 2008 ). However, clause 16 of EU Directive 2009/128/CE strongly discourages or prohibits the use of chemical herbicides, such as glyphosate, in public gardens, parks, sport turfs, and schoolyards. As a possible alternative, turfgrass can also be

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Judith Pozo, Juan E. Álvaro, Isidro Morales, Josefa Requena, Tommaso La Malfa, Pilar C. Mazuela, and Miguel Urrestarazu

sweet pepper crop, whereas the tomato crop was unaffected. The measured quantities of absorbed nutrients were similar to those obtained from other alternative local substrates such as almond shell waste used for tomato cultivation ( Urrestarazu et al

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Sally M. Schneider and Bradley D. Hanson

the most commonly used soil treatment for certified nursery production in California and is allowed under critical use exemption (CUE) and quarantine/preshipment (QPS) criteria [ United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 1999 ]. Alternatives to MB

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Ursula K. Schuch, Jack J. Kelly, and Trent Teegerstrom

. Overhead sprinklers were used in the experiment because they provided an alternative to daily hand watering, and they are used in production nurseries and in holding areas of retail nurseries where plants are not on display for customers. Further questions

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Bethany A. Harris, Wojciech J. Florkowski, and Svoboda V. Pennisi

States ( Sun et al., 2015 ) and globally ( Castronuovo et al., 2015 ; Zhang et al., 2019 ). Lower gas emissions can be achieved if alternatives to plastic containers are used; for example, Koeser et al. (2014) reported that 16% of carbon dioxide

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Diego A. Mata and Javier F. Botto

grown under a neutral transparent film with addition of PGR ( Fig. 2 ). These results indicate that the PGR can be replaced by an environmentally friendly alternative like the manipulation of the R/FR ratio using photoselective films in poinsettia crops

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Lindsay M. Jordan, Thomas Björkman, and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel

instead use repeated cultivation under vines to maintain bare soil, but cultivation can encourage soil erosion in vineyards ( Martinez-Casanovas and Sanchez-Bosch, 2000 ). Using cover crops in under-vine rows could offer a sustainable alternative to

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Jennifer Tillman, Ajay Nair, Mark Gleason, and Jean Batzer

surface to serve as biological mulch that can be used as an alternative to plastic mulch. This technique can be adapted to a strip tillage system by minimally disturbing one narrow strip for planting, leaving the mulch between rows undisturbed. Soils

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Ajay Nair and Brandon Carpenter

( Schmilewski, 2008 ). Another alternative product that is being tested is biochar, but its potential impact on medium properties and seedling growth has not been tested and validated extensively. Biochar is the term used for soil amendment made of charred