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Bruce W. Wood, Charles C. Reilly, Clive H. Bock, and Michael W. Hotchkiss

theoretically influence host susceptibility to fungal diseases through disruption of metabolic or physiological processes conferring disease resistance ( Graham, 1983 ; Huber and Graham, 1999 ). Because timely availability of nutrient elements can influence

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Kaitlin Barrios, Carrie Knott, and James Geaghan

symbiont conferring some advantage to the seed as with an endophyte. Many grasses worldwide have been reported to host endophytes that either parasitize their host plant or form a mutualistic relationship conferring some advantage to the host under adverse

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Monica Ozores-Hampton, Philip A. Stansly, and Eugene McAvoy

alternate hosts of TYLCV such as pepper. As a result, the tomato-free planting period is generally not long enough to eliminate the problem of TYLCV ( Polston, 2003 ). These deficiencies in the present management system are posing a serious threat to the 32

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Parminder S. Multani, Christopher S. Cramer, Robert L. Steiner, and Rebecca Creamer

; Gent et al., 2004 ). IYSV may overwinter in volunteer onions ( Gent et al., 2004 , 2006 ; Nault et al., 2008 ; Schwartz et al., 2008 ), onion cull piles ( Nault et al., 2008 ), alternate crops, and certain weed hosts ( Cosmi et al., 2003 ; Gent et

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Kyle E. LaPlant, Lindsay E. Wyatt, George Moriarty, Maryann Fink-Brodnicki, Molly Jahn, and Michael Mazourek

, 1996 ; Pérez-García et al., 2009 ). The pathogen is an obligate biotroph ( Green et al., 2002 ) which overwinters in the southern United States on alternate hosts and on greenhouse-grown cucurbits. The pathogen is spread each year by airborne conidia

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Yonghong Guo, Matthew Kramer, and Margaret Pooler

(six tested), and Prunus incisa (seven tested) were among the most susceptible and the most resistant plants tested. Our results on host resistance among cultivars is in agreement with those of Joshua et al. (2017) , who tested six ornamental Prunus

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Yijun Yin, Xueli Cui, Lulu Zhang, Yunfei Mao, Xiafei Su, YePing Liu, Huiling Pang, and Xiang Shen

to ensure flowering the next year. Our observations indicated that this cultivar has few incidents of pests and diseases. However, it may be necessary to control aphids in the spring by spraying pesticides. The planting of alternate host plants for

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Charles C. Reilly, Bruce W. Wood, and Katherine L. Stevenson

not usually considered of economic importance; however, in severe cases, they likely contribute to economic loss of tree canopy structure and photoassimilation capacity. Such loss can potentially influence nutmeat yield, quality, and alternate bearing

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Eric T. Stafne, Charles T. Rohla, and Becky L. Carroll

use for this waste product could be developed, pecan shells might be considered a value-added product of the pecan production waste-product stream. The Oklahoma pecan industry depends primarily on native pecan production, but alternate

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Soumaila Sanogo, Osama I. El-Sebai, and Robert Sanderson

wilt have shown that P. capsici could be reduced significantly by use of alternate-furrow irrigation in contrast to flood irrigation of every furrow ( Biles et al., 1992 ) and by use of drip irrigation ( Ristaino and Johnston, 1999 ; Xie et al., 1999