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Danielle Lo Giudice, Tony K. Wolf, and Richard P. Marini

Prohexadione-calcium (prohexadione-Ca) was evaluated for its ability to suppress vegetative growth of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) under field conditions. Two or three applications of 250 mg·L-1 prohexadione-Ca reduced primary shoot growth of `Cabernet Sauvignon', but had little effect on other canopy characteristics or cane pruning weights. The reduction of shoot growth was not persistent and shoot hedging was ultimately needed to avoid canopy shading. Similarly, three applications of either 125, 250, or 375 mg·L-1 prohexadione-Ca reduced `Cabernet franc' shoot growth, but again did not eliminate the need for shoot hedging. Cane pruning weights of `Cabernet franc' were unaffected by treatment, and canopy characteristics were generally not improved. Two prebloom and one postbloom application of 250 mg·L-1 prohexadione-Ca were evaluated on `Cabernet franc' and `Chardonnay' in separate field experiments. The prebloom treatments retarded shoot growth of `Chardonnay', but had no effects on `Cabernet franc' shoot characteristics. To retard shoot growth, prohexadione-Ca had to be applied prior to bloom; however, prebloom applications had the potential for severe reductions in crop yield.

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Andrew P. Wycislo, John R. Clark, and Douglas E. Karcher

Quantifying fruit shape is challenging, particularly when measurements are made on segregating populations of plants. Objective manual measurements can be performed on small samples of fruit, but this method is difficult and very time-consuming when dealing with larger samples or when shapes are complex or shape variations are slight. Subjective rating scales can also be used, but their effectiveness is questionable when done by multiple raters resulting from varying descriptive standards among individuals. Therefore, a method was developed to analyze digital images containing multiple fruits to characterize fruit shapes. Each segregant of a population of table grapes (Vitis spp.) with parents of wide shape variation was photographed and analyzed for shape using SigmaScan® software. The program discriminately selected image pixels representing the fruit and determined the area and perimeter of a grape berry, which were subsequently used to calculate the major:minor axis ratio, shape factor, and compactness values. Computer findings were compared with data from human raters using a simple correlation. When compared with the human ratings, results showed strong correlations of r = 0.941 for major:minor axis ratio, r = –0.804 for shape factor, and r = 0.744 for compactness. This analysis method was a reasonably quick and simple way to quantify grape berry shape, yielding valuable phenotypic data in numerical form. This technology should be useful for shape characterizations in other fruits as well.

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Peter Cousins and M. Andrew Walker

The grape Vitis champinii Planchon is one source of nematode resistance in grape rootstocks. Several selections valued for their resistance to the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), a serious pest of grape production, are used as rootstocks and in rootstock variety development. However, V. champinii-based rootstock varieties are faulted for their excess vigor and susceptibility to other root pests. Root-knot nematode populations with the ability to damage important V. champinii-based rootstocks have been identified and may become more common. Other V. champinii accessions might be sources of nematode resistance genes with different specificities or might have more suitable horticultural characteristics than V. champinii varieties in commercial use. Nine V. champinii accessions from the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, Calif., and a V. champinii rootstock variety were screened for resistance to M. incognita. Resistance was assessed by counting eggs produced per root system. Eight of ten V. champinii accessions did not support nematode reproduction. Susceptible accessions supported lower nematode reproduction than susceptible V. vinifera control varieties. Progeny testing from crosses of resistant and susceptible accessions suggests that a dominant and a recessive gene may condition root-knot nematode resistance.

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R. Scorza, J.M. Cordts, D.J. Gray, D. Gonsalves, R.L. Emershad, and D.W. Ramming

Transgenic grape plants were regenerated from somatic embryos derived from leaves of in vitro-grown plants of `Thompson Seedless' grape (Vitis vinifera L.) plants. Somatic embryos were either exposed directly to engineered Agrobacterium tumefaciens or they were bombarded twice with 1-μm gold particles and then exposed to A. tumefaciens. Somatic embryos were transformed with either the lytic peptide Shiva-1 gene or the tomato ringspot virus (TomRSV) coat protein (CP) gene. After cocultivation, secondary embryos proliferated on Emershad/Ramming proliferation (ERP) medium for 6 weeks before selection on ERP medium containing 40 μg·mL-1 kanamycin (kan). Transgenic embryos were identified after 3 to 5 months under selection and allowed to germinate and develop into rooted plants on woody plant medium containing 1 μm 6-benzylaminopurine, 1.5% sucrose, 0.3% activated charcoal, and 0.75% agar. Integration of the foreign genes into these grapevines was verified by growth in the presence of kanamycin (kan), positive β-glucuronidase (GUS) and polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) assays, and Southern analysis.

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Kathryn Keeley and John E. Preece

Hard-to-root hardwood cuttings of Vitis aestivalis `Norton' were collected during Feb. 1999. Cuttings had three nodes and were 10 to 15 cm long. Prior to treatments, cuttings were submersed in a solution of 9.5 g/1L of ZeroTol (a mixture of hydrogen dioxide and peroxyacetic acid). The bottom two nodes were placed into 1 vermiculite: 1 perlite (by volume) and set under mist in the greenhouse at of 20/15 °C day/night). About 5 weeks after treatment, number of roots and root length data were collected. The bottom 2 cm of cuttings in one experiment received a 30-s dip in 0, 2500, 5000, 7500, or 10,000 mg/L IBA and/or NAA to determine the effects of these treatments on rooting of hardwood cuttings. IBA and NAA are not significantly different, however there was a positive linear relationship between rooting and concentration of auxin. As concentration of auxin increased, mean number of roots increased. In additional experiments, cuttings treated with 0 or 5000 mg/L of IBA were compared based on timing after harvest of cuttings and treatment. Of the cuttings treated and placed under mist on 26 Mar. 1999, 30% of the control cuttings rooted and 50% of the cuttings treated with 5000 mg/L rooted. Two weeks later, 65% and 55% of the cuttings treated with 5000 mg/L rooted respective to the 0- and 5000-mg/L treatments. One week later (14 Apr. 1999), 77.5% and 72.5%, respectively, rooted. This suggests that timing after harvest for placing the cuttings in a propagation bed is important for increasing the rooting percentage of `Norton' hardwood cuttings.

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Claudine M. Bona, Jean H. Gould, J. Creighton Miller, David M. Stelly Jr., and Eliezer S. Louzada

The highly appreciated Euvitis subgenera species (2n=38) are very susceptible to pests and diseases. Tolerance/resistance may be found in the closely related Vitis rotundifolia cultivars (2n=40), but the poor rooting characteristic of this species is a problem, and conventional crossings between Euvitis and V. rotundifolia are complicated because of different chromosome numbers. Therefore, somatic hybridization may be an alternative for gene transference between these species. The establishment of an efficient in vitro procedure may facilitate future genetic manipulations. Furthermore, in vitro success may be an indicative of protoplast totipotency. The goal of this research was to test 11 cultivars from different species for their in vitro cultivation and protoplast isolation capacity. Different doses of benzyladenine (BA) were tested and explants were cultivated in both Lloyd and McCown's Woody Plant Medium (WPM) and Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). We established an efficient in vitro procedure and plants of C. sauvignon, Syrah, SV 12-375, Scuppernong, Magnolia, Higgens and B. beauty were regenerated. No rooting problem was observed in vitro. Black spanish and Herbemont callus were kept in vitro, but plants were not regenerated. SV-12327 and Jumbo died. WPM was more efficient than MS for most cultivars. The V. vinifera cultivars C. sauvignon and Syrah developed well in both media. Protoplast isolation was more efficient using leaves rather than callus or suspension cells. BA at 3 μM·L-1 induced organogenesis while 10 μM·L-1 induced callogenesis except for Syrah, where 1 μM·L-1 induced organogenesis. Protoplasts were isolated from Herbemont and C. sauvignon and microcallus were obtained.

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Shijian Zhuang, Letizia Tozzini, Alan Green, Dana Acimovic, G. Stanley Howell, Simone D. Castellarin, and Paolo Sabbatini

targeted quality traits, especially with respect to the concentrations of sugars, anthocyanins, and phenolics at harvest. Materials and Methods Plant material. Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet franc vines (clone FPS 01), grafted on rootstock 3309 C and

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Sorkel Kadir

High temperature adversely affects photosynthetic rates and thylakoid activities in many species, but photosynthesis response to heat stress is not well defined in grapes (Vitis L.). Genotypes within species respond differently to high temperatures, indicating a genetic variability for the trait. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological responses of two grape species to high temperature, at the whole-plant level and at the cellular level. Gas exchange, relative chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence of intact leaves and thermostability of extracted thylakoids of the American (V. aestivalis Michx.) `Cynthiana' and European (V. vinifera L.) `Semillon', `Pinot Noir', `Chardonnay', and `Cabernet Sauvignon' wine grapes were evaluated. One-year-old vines were placed in controlled environmental chamber held at 20/15, 30/25, or 40/35 °C day/night for 4 weeks. Net CO2 assimilation (A) rate, stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E) rate, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence of intact leaves were measured at weekly intervals. Chlorophyll fluorescence of thylakoids extracted from V. aestivalis `Cynthiana' and V. vinifera `Pinot Noir' subjected to temperatures ranging from 20 to 50 °C was measured. Optimal temperatures for photosynthesis were 20/15 °C for `Cynthiana' and `Semillon' and 30/25 °C for the other three V. vinifera cultivars. The A, gs, E, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence values at 40/35 °C were lower in `Cynthiana' than `Pinot Noir'. In general, reduction of A coincided with decline in gs in `Cynthiana', whereas no strong relationship between A and gs was observed in V. vinifera cultivars. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv) and the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) of intact leaves for all the cultivars decreased at 40/35 °C, with severe decline in `Cynthiana' and `Cabernet Sauvignon,' moderate decline in `Semillon' and `Chardonnay', and slight decline in `Pinot Noir'. A distinct effect of high temperature on Fv and Fv/Fm of `Cynthiana' was exerted after 2 weeks of exposure. Prolonged-exposure to 40/35 °C led to 78% decrease in Fv/Fm in `Cynthiana', compared with 8% decrease in `Pinot Noir'. In general, Fv and Fv/Fm of extracted thylakoids declined as temperature increased, with more decline in `Cynthiana' than in `Pinot Noir'. Based on A rates and Fv/Fm ratios, results showed that `Cynthiana' has lower optimal temperature for photosynthesis (20/15 °C) than `Pinot Noir' (30/25 °C). Chlorophyll fluorescence responses of intact leaves and extracted thylakoids to high temperatures indicate that `Pinot Noir' possess higher photosynthetic activity than `Cynthiana'. Results of this work could be used in selection programs for the development of heat resistant cultivars in the warmest regions.

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Huiling Wang, Wei Wang, Weidong Huang, and Haiying Xu

, P.K. Davies, C. Robinson, S.P. 1996 Analysis of the expression of anthocyanin pathway genes in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz grape berries and the implications for pathway regulation Plant Physiol. 111 1059 1066 Buer, C.S. 2010 Flavonoids

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John E. Stenger and Harlene Hatterman-Valenti

discovered and designated Vitis NDMutant1. The genotype resulted from self-pollination of a vine designated Vitis ND 733 (unreleased). The resulting genotype displays a determinate, shrub-like growth and reproductive habit with continuous flowering