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C. Michael Bourget

expenses (electricity use as well as replacement lamps). Naturally, advances in lighting technology are of great interest to the CEA community for these very reasons. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the most recent lighting technology to enter the CEA

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Kun Li, Qi-Chang Yang, Yu-Xin Tong, and Ruifeng Cheng

attractive alternative to traditional light sources, LEDs have been widely used in potential energy saving applications such as rooms ( Ryckaert et al., 2012 ), supermarkets ( Elsevier Science, 2006 ), tunnels ( Zeng et al., 2011 ), and even in coastal

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Baniekal Hiremath Gangadhar, Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Gobinath Pandian, and Se Won Park

sources have certain limitations like mixture of impractical wavelengths for promoting plant growth ( Brown et al., 1995 ). In recent days, LEDs are in the process of replacing these obsolete light sources for plant growth under controlled conditions. LEDs

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Zhong-Hua Bian, Rui-Feng Cheng, Qi-Chang Yang, Jun Wang, and Chungui Lu

, have effects on plant growth and development ( Folta and Maruhnich, 2007 ; Li and Kubota, 2009 ; Tsormpatsidis et al., 2008 ). LEDs provide great advantages over other types of horticultural lighting. Some research has been conducted into the effects

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Ki-Ho Son and Myung-Min Oh

crop under different light sources, each cultural practice must be differentiated, because each light source has a unique light quality that directly affects plant growth and development. Recently, LEDs have been used as sources of artificial lighting

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How-Chiun Wu and Chun-Chih Lin

culture ( Economou and Read, 1987 ). However, one of the disadvantages of fluorescent lamps is the difficulty of controlling light quality, which has been shown to have significant influences on plant morphogenesis. The use of LEDs as an alternative light

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Vincent Martineau, Mark Lefsrud, Most Tahera Naznin, and Dean A. Kopsell

include heat generation and suboptimal spectrum for photosynthesis. LED lamps are a promising technology that has the potential to improve irradiance efficiency above HPS. Sustained developments in LED technology have brought their irradiance to a suitable

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Marc W. van Iersel and David Gianino

electricity savings of ≈25% with little effect on production ( Clausen et al., 2015 ; Kjaer et al., 2011 ). LEDs provide important advantages over HPS lights. For example, they can provide light with a spectral distribution that can be used efficiently by

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Zhengnan Yan, Dongxian He, Genhua Niu, Qing Zhou, and Yinghua Qu

and physiological responses to specific light spectrum, and the current advancement of LEDs enables one to tailor the spectrum to obtain favorable plant growth or nutritional values ( Mickens et al., 2018 ; Park and Runkle, 2018 ). Compared with other

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Paul Deram, Mark G. Lefsrud, and Valérie Orsat

greenhouse lighting systems use broad-spectrum light sources such as HPS or fluorescent lamps. LEDs have been shown to decrease artificial lighting costs to less than 25% of the cost of traditional artificial lighting as a result of their 75% higher