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Benjamin Wherley and Thomas R. Sinclair

-growing turfgrass species, neither factor is likely to have a significant impact on overall water requirements for these species when managed at low mowing heights and in well-watered conditions. Literature Cited Adams, R. Kerber, E

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Laurence Gendron, Guillaume Létourneau, Julien Cormier, Claire Depardieu, Carole Boily, Raymond Levallois, and Jean Caron

(ETP)–precipitation (P)” balance ( Agrométéo Québec, 2017 ), supplemental irrigation is a requirement for strawberry production in the province because the crop is often field-grown under a plastic mulch. Because strawberry plants have high water

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Edward W. Bush, Ann L. Gray, Paul W. Wilson, and Robert I. Edling

Irrigation management is essential in producing quality woody ornamentals and minimizing off-site runoff. The closed-capture effluent device provided an inexpensive method of monitoring effluent in large containers throughout the year with minimal effort. Daily irrigation requirements for `Little Gem' southern magnolia (Magnolia grandifolia) were established throughout an entire growing season. The maximum daily water requirement was approximately 3 gal (11.4 L).

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Yong Ha Rhie, Seonghwan Kang, and Jongyun Kim

; Lopez and Runkle, 2005 ; Ota et al., 1991 ; Wang, 1995 ). However, belowground factors, such as substrate moisture levels, have been rarely addressed, and orchids are often cultivated without knowledge of optimal water requirements. Irrigation control

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Xin Zhao and Edward E. Carey

. 22/23 215 228 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1998 Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56 8 July 2008 < >. Gao, L

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Tamara Wynne and Dale Devitt

pear trees growing in drainage lysimeters J. Hort. Sci. 70 531 540 Calder, I.R. 1990 Evaporation in the uplands. Wiley, Chichester, UK DaCosta, M. Huang, B. 2006 Minimum water requirements for creeping, colonial and velvet bentgrass under fairway

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Amanda Bayer, Imran Mahbub, Matthew Chappell, John Ruter, and Marc W. van Iersel

soil moisture sensors as well as a better understanding of plant water requirements is being developed. Increased monitoring of irrigation applications is necessary to compensate for changing conditions in nurseries and to ensure irrigation is being

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Carlos Carpio and D. Scott NeSmith

This study evaluates the effect of irrigation on the profitability of the muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifilia) operation. Data from a 3-year experiment in which muscadine grapes were grown under four irrigation regimes were used to establish the relationship between yields and irrigation. Assuming a muscadine fruit price of $0.50/lb, harvesting costs of $0.21/lb, and irrigation costs of $16.75/acre-inch, the profit-maximizing level of irrigation was estimated to be 13.1 acre-inches for a season, or 7 gal/day per plant. Water requirements for profit maximization are 9% lower than water requirements for yield maximizing. Moreover, it is concluded that the effect of an adequate use of irrigation in the profitability of the muscadine grape operation can be substantial.

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Aidan Kendall, Carol A. Miles, Travis R. Alexander, Edward Scheenstra, and Gabriel T. LaHue

.G. Pereira, L.S. Raes, D. Smith, M. 1998 Crop Evapotranspiration: Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements (No. 56) Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.S. Auzmendi, I. Mata, M. Lopez, G. Girona, J. Marsal, J. 2011

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Charles F. Mancino

Arizona's golf and sod industry generates $280 M year-1 in revenue and surpasses the vegetable, cotton and dairy industries. Despite the economic worth of turf, a need still exists to conserve the limited supply of potable water in this harsh Sonoran Desert environment. Mandatory water conservation programs have been developed for many sectors of the Arizona economy. To meet this challenge, the turfgrass industry and government bodies have begun to contribute to the development of research programs which reduce turfgrass water requirements and dependence upon potable water. Current research includes a) determining the minimum water requirements of higher quality turf under conditions of high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits; b) the turfgrass potential of grasses with lower water requirements than bermudagrass; c) the development of a statewide weather station network to predict daily turfgrass water use; and d) determine management strategies for turfgrass irrigated with wastewater effluent. The overall goal of these programs is to produce high quality and functional turf with 20 to 50 percent less water.