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Kellie J. Walters and Roberto G. Lopez

., 1976 ). It is labeled for foliar spray applications on floriculture crops to increase lateral branching, abort flowers and flower buds, and inhibit internode elongation ( Currey et al., 2016b ; Hayashi et al., 2001 ); although not labeled, recent

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Christopher J. Currey and John E. Erwin

less total chemical, and are appropriate for nearly every PGR. As such, foliar sprays are the most common method employed for PGR application ( Gent and McAvoy, 2000 ). Though spray application of most PGRs elicit an effective response, the efficacy of

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Christopher J. Currey, Roberto G. Lopez, Vijay K. Rapaka, James E. Faust, and Erik S. Runkle

-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA; Dip’N Grow Liquid Rooting Concentrate; Dip’N Grow, Clackamas, OR) or received no rooting hormone. Foliar spray applications (volume 0.20 L·m −2 ) of solutions containing 300 mg·L −1 non-ionic surfactant (CapSil) or solutions containing

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Syuan-You Lin and Shinsuke Agehara

defoliants in the ( A ) 2018–19 and ( B ) 2019–20 seasons. Plants were treated with defoliants at 187 kg·ha −1 via spray application (1870 L·ha −1 ) on 27 Dec. 2018 in the 2018–19 season and on 25 Dec. 2019 in the 2019–20 season. A nonionic surfactant (Agri

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John Erwin, Rene O’Connell, and Ken Altman

have been commercialized as flowering potted plants ( Boyle, 1990 , 1991 ; Meier, 1995 ; O’Leary and Boyle, 1999 , 2000 ). Subsequent work on Schlumbergera and Hatoria showed BA spray application during flower initiation increased flower number

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Christopher J. Currey and Nicholas J. Flax

increase the size or “bulk up” a containerized crop and reduce the disease pressure posed by senesced flowers. We have found no published information on effective concentrations of ethephon for foliar spray applications on streptocarpus to inhibit or delay

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Gary J. Kling, Hannah M. Mathers, and Luke Case

, and phytotoxicity. Direct spray application of herbicides to containerized plants can result in leaf scorch, chlorosis on leaves and stems, and reduced plant growth ( Adams, 1990 ). As much as 80% of broadcast herbicide may settle into spaces between

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Heinz K. Wutscher

Seven-year-old `Hamlin' orange on Swingle citrumelo rootstock were sprayed with 30% methanol and 0.05% Silwet surfactant. There were four treatments: one spray application 48 days, two spray applications 48 and 32 days, and three spray applications 48, 32, and 20 days before harvest on December 2, 1993, with five untreated control trees. The treatments were arranged in five replications of randomized, complete blocks throughout the orchard. There were no significant differences in fruit weight, fruit diameter, rind color, rind thickness, juice content, soluble solids, total acids, solids/acids ratio, and juice color of 30 fruit samples collected from each tree. Leaf samples collected at harvest and analyzed for 12 elements showed higher Na and Cl levels in the leaves of the trees treated with methanol once than in those treated three times.

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Brian K. Hogendorp and Raymond A. Cloyd

24-h light:0-h dark photoperiod. After 24 h, all plants were treated with the appropriate treatments. Spray applications were performed using a 946-mL plastic spray bottle (The Home Depot, Manhattan, KS). Individual plants were sprayed to runoff with

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Mary Vargo and James E. Faust

replications are referred to as the low, medium, and high DLI treatments. Ethephon treatments. In replication 1 of this experiment, six stock plants within each DLI treatment received weekly spray applications of 0, 100, 200, or 300 mg·L –1 ethephon