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Azadeh Behrooz, Kourosh Vahdati, Farhad Rejali, Mahmoud Lotfi, Saadat Sarikhani, and Charles Leslie

determined using the Kjeldahl method ( Bradstreet, 1954 ). P and Zn concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry ( Masson et al., 2010 ). Physiologic and biochemical characteristics. Chlorophyll, proline, total soluble sugar

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Yang Yang, Runfang Zhang, Pingsheng Leng, Zenghui Hu, and Man Shen

measured according to the method of Bates et al. (1973) . The soluble protein content was measured according to the method of Bradford (1976) . The soluble sugar content was measured according to the method of Li (2000) . The endogenous hormone GA and

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Shawna L. Daley, William Patrick Wechter, and Richard L. Hassell

for each time after treatment to determine the amount of carbohydrate available in an average hypocotyl or cotyledon. Glucose, sucrose, and fructose results were combined and are reported as total soluble sugars, and starch results are reported alone

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Rebecca L. Darnell, Nicacio Cruz-Huerta, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

temperature and fruiting on 1) ovary swelling and vegetative growth; 2) leaf net CER and the photosynthetic acclimation ability of leaves to LNT; and 3) soluble sugar and starch concentrations in ovaries at anthesis. Materials and Methods Plant material and

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Mingyue Bao, Minmin Liu, Qingxia Zhang, Tonglin Wang, Xia Sun, and Jinguang Xu

colors. We documented the anatomic structure of the petals and determined the cell sap pH value, water content, Ct, soluble sugar and soluble protein contents, and pigment content and composition. We also analyzed the indexes influencing flower color

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Karen Mesa, Sara Serra, Andrea Masia, Federico Gagliardi, Daniele Bucci, and Stefano Musacchi

carbohydrate reserves to support initial growth and development in the following season ( Kozlowski, 1992 ; Tustin et al., 1997 ). In the present work, we evaluated starch and soluble sugar dynamics in relation to crop-load in ‘Abbé Fétel’ pear trees. In

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Sheng Xu, Mingmin Jiang, Jiangyan Fu, Lijian Liang, Bing Xia, and Ren Wang

less than 0.01. The amounts of Chl and Car were calculated using the equations as described by Lichtenthaler (1987) . Determination of soluble sugar content. Leaves (0.5 g, FW) were ground in a mortar and pestle. Then 1 mL of 80% ethanol was added, and

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Yong Yang, Xueyong Liu, Yuanli Jiang, Zuoxiang Xiang, Qingguo Xu, Na Zhao, and Bichao Shu

carbohydrates can supply energy and metabolites to participate in the biosynthetic processes ( Rolland et al., 2006 ). Soluble sugars, such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, have been widely considered to be typical osmoprotectants, stabilizing cellular

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Shanshan Sun, Mengying An, Liebao Han, and Shuxia Yin

room temperature. Samples were then boiled in a water bath for 30 min and EL 2 was measured again. The leaf EL was calculated as follows: EL (%) = (EL 1 /EL 2 ) × 100%. Determination of proline and soluble sugar contents. Proline content was determined

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Weijie Jiang, Jie Bai, Xueyong Yang, Hongjun Yu, and Yanpeng Liu

cryoprotective properties (such as proline and soluble sugars) and root TTC-reducing activity ( Ristic and Ashworth, 1993 ; Uemura et al., 1995 ; Xin and Browse, 2000 ). A number of genetic and molecular studies on plant response to low temperatures have