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D. Gerasopoulos and D.G. Richardson

`D'Anjou' pear (Pyrus communis L.) trees were sprayed with zero or 32.3 mm CaCl2 during fruit development at 55, 86, 125, and 137 d from full bloom and harvested at 85% (immature), 100% (mature), and 110% (overmature) maturity stages. The fruit were stored in air at –1 °C for several periods to determine the effect of CaCl2 treatments on chilling requirement to accomplish ripening during 11 d at 20 °C. Immature or mature unsprayed fruit required 55 d, while the overmature fruit required 40 d at –1 °C to gain the capacity to produce ethylene during ripening at 20 °C. Calcium sprays increased flesh firmness at harvest by 15 N, fruit Ca concentrations by an average of 0.01 mg·g-1, fresh mass basis, and the chilling requirements by at least 15 d. Unsprayed immature fruit contained more Ca than the sprayed mature or overmature fruit, but their chilling requirement was similar. These results suggest that high Ca concentrations may increase the chilling requirement of `d'Anjou' pears in a developmentally related manner.

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Georges T. Dodds and Pamela M. Ludford

Chilling-injury symptoms on the surface of eight cultivars or lines of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit were mapped with respect to subtending locules. Mature-green (MG) fruit were chilled at SC for 10 to 25 days and then ripened to red ripe at 20C. Mature-green fruit showed a major portion of injury over subtending locules and on the stem end. The location of injury corresponded with the regions that were the last to ripen. The injuries of immature-green (IG) fruit treated in a similar manner were different from those of MG fruit both in appearance and in distribution.

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D. Gerasopoulos and D.G. Richardson

To determine the ability of `d' Anjou' pear fruit to produce climacteric ethylene postharvest, fruit were harvested at a mature green stage, chilled at -1 °C for various times, then transferred to 20 °C to ripen. In addition, fruit were first held at 20 °C for various times, then at –1 °C for various durations, followed by transfer to 20 °C for 11 days. As storage time at –1 °C increased from 0 to 70 days, the time required to induce climacteric ethylene when transferred to 20 °C progressively decreased from 90 to 0 days. The total storage time (sum of d at chilling and nonchilling temperature) needed to induce climacteric ethylene remained nearly constant (70 to 90 days). However, this was not the case with fruit held initially at 20 °C, then transferred to –1 °C. The total storage time needed before the pears produced climacteric ethylene ranged from 70 to 110 days and increased with time of storage at 20 °C. These fruit required more time at –1 °C than those first stored at –1 °C. The chilling requirement mechanism of `d' Anjou' pears remains intact even during storage at nonchilling temperature and diminishes with senescence.

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John M. Dole, Paul Fisher, and Geoffrey Njue

Several treatments were investigated for increasing vase life of cut `Renaissance Red' poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch.) stems. A vase life of at least 20.6 days resulted when harvested stems were placed directly into vases with 22 °C deionized water plus 200 mg·L-1 8-HQS (the standard floral solution used) and 0% to 1% sucrose without floral foam. Maturity of stems at harvest, ranging from 0 to 4 weeks after anthesis, had no effect on vase life or days to first abscised leaf. Pretreatments immediately after harvest using floral solution heated to 38 or 100 °C, or 1 or 10-min dips in isopropyl alcohol, had no effect, whereas 24 hours in 10% sucrose shortened vase life by 6.4 days and time to first abscised cyathium by 4.5 days. Stem storage at 10 °C decreased vase life, particularly when stems were stored dry (with only 0.8 days vase life after 3 weeks dry storage). Increasing duration of wet storage in floral solution from 0 to 3 weeks decreased vase life from 21.5 to 14.6 days. Placing cut stems in a vase containing floral foam decreased time to first abscised leaf by 3.7 to 11.6 days compared with no foam. A 1% to 2% sucrose concentration in the vase solution produced the longest postharvest life for stems placed in foam but had little effect on stems not placed in foam. A 4% sucrose concentration decreased vase life compared with lower sucrose concentrations regardless of the presence of foam. Holding stems in the standard floral solution increased vase life and delayed leaf abscission compared with deionized or tap water only, with further improvement when stem bases were recut every three days. Commercial floral pretreatments and holding solutions had no effect on vase life and days to first abscised cyathium but delayed leaf abscission.

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Allan B. Woolf, Elspeth A. MacRae, Karen J. Spooner, and Robert J. Redgwell

Modifications to solubilized cell wall polyuronides of sweet persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. `Fuyu') were examined during development of chilling injury (CI) during storage and in response to heat treatments that alleviated CI. Storage at 0 °C caused the solubilization of a polyuronide fraction that possessed a higher average molecular mass than polyuronide solubilized during normal ripening. The viscosity of this fraction was 30-times that of normally ripened fruit. Fruit heat-treated before or following storage contained a soluble polyuronide fraction with a markedly lower average molecular mass and decreased viscosity than in chilling injured fruit. Heat treatment also impeded an increase in viscosity of the cell wall material if applied before storage. CI (gelling) was related to the release of polyuronide from the cell wall during storage and its lack of subsequent degradation. Heat treatments retarded polyuronide release but promoted degradation of solubilized polyuronides.

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Anil P. Ranwala and William B. Miller

The effects of Promalin® [PROM; 100 mg·L–1 each of GA4+7 and benzyladenine (BA)] sprays on leaf chlorosis and plant height during greenhouse production of ancymidol-treated (two 0.5-mg drenches per plant) Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Nellie White') were investigated. Spraying with PROM at early stages of growth [36 or 55 days after planting (DAP)] completely prevented leaf chlorosis until the puffy bud stage, and plants developed less severe postharvest leaf chlorosis after cold storage at 4 °C for 2 weeks. When PROM was sprayed on plants in which leaf chlorosis had already begun (80 DAP), further leaf chlorosis was prevented during the remaining greenhouse phase and during the postharvest phase. PROM caused significant stem elongation (23% to 52% taller than controls) when applied 36 or 55 DAP, but not when applied at 80 DAP or later. The development of flower buds was not affected by PROM treatments. Although PROM sprays applied at 55 DAP or later increased postharvest flower longevity, earlier applications did not. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine 6-amine (benzyladenine, BA); α-cyclopropyl-α-(p-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol).

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A. Urena, D.J. Huber, J.A. Bartz, and C.K. Chandler

26 POSTER SESSION 2 Postharvest Physiology/Fruits & Nuts (General)

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Steven F. Vaughn

59 POSTER SESSION 5 Postharvest Physiology/Vegetable Crops

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I.K. Kang, D.A. Starrett, S.G. Suh, J.K. Byun, and K.C. Gross

26 POSTER SESSION 2 Postharvest Physiology/Fruits & Nuts (General)

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F.A. Tomás-Barberdán, J. Loaiza-Velarde, and M.E. Saltveit

132 ORAL SESSION 28 (Abstr. 196–204) Postharvest Physiology–Vegetables