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Yong In Kuk and Ji San Shin

min to fully open all photosystem (PS) II reaction centers (oxidize Qa), and also to dissipate the transthylakoid pH gradient to eliminate nonphotochemical quenching ( Krause et al., 1983 ). A minimal fluorescence yield, F 0 , was obtained upon

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Zhong-Hua Bian, Rui-Feng Cheng, Qi-Chang Yang, Jun Wang, and Chungui Lu

photosynthetic system II (PSII) ( Huner et al., 1998 ; Lichtenthaler et al., 2005 ): the maximal quantum yield ( F v / F m ) = ( F m − F o )/ F m ; the effective quantum yield (Φ PSII ) = ( F m ′ − F s )/ F m ′; nonphotochemical quenching (qN) = ( F m − F m

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Kevin M. Folta and Kayla Shea Childers

harvesters of photons. These energized compounds and the processes they drive (photosynthesis, nonphotochemical quenching) affect metabolism and therefore develop metabolic product states that are sensed and used as information within the cell. Retrograde

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Theoharis Ouzounis, Eva Rosenqvist, and Carl-Otto Ottosen

nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence], which possibly limits the formation of chlorophyll triplets and prevents ROS from being produced ( Demmig-Adams and Adams, 1992 ). Lutein and β-carotene are also key components of the light

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Jinhong Yuan, Man Xu, Wei Duan, Peige Fan, and Shaohua Li

, R.G. 1994 Regulation of light harvesting in green plants (indication by nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence) Plant Physiol. 106 415 420 10.1104/pp.106.2.415 Hsiao, T.C. 1973 Plant responses to water stress Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol

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Jiaxin Li, Yingli Ma, and Yinfeng Xie

quenching (qP), and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), were measured using a chlorophyll fluorescence imager (CF Imager; Techologica, Essex, UK). All fluorescence measurements were performed five times following the first NPs treatment, once every 10 d. The