greenhouse environment; 2) determine whether differences were found in plant growth when plants were exposed to irrigation water dominated by either sulfate- or chloride-based salts; and 3) determine leaf mineral compositions of two zinnia cultivars when
Christy T. Carter and Catherine M. Grieve
Humberto Núñez-Moreno, James L. Walworth, and Andrew P. Pond
(viviparous) nuts percent ranged from 6.0 to 12.7. Values were highest in 2007. Stick-tight percentages varied from 3.2% to 8.8%, and the highest values occurred in 2006, the year of low nut production. Leaf mineral composition of pecans was unaffected by
Giuseppe Colla, Jeff Mitchell, and Durga Poudell
A 2-year field study was conducted within the Sustainable Agriculture Farming Systems Project at the Univ. of California, Davis, to evaluate the effects of long-term conventional (CONV), low-input (LOW), and organic (ORG) production practices on processing tomato fruit mineral composition and quality. To establish relationships between soil chemical properties, soil water content, fruit mineral composition, and quality, this study characterized soil chemical properties and monitored soil water content through each tomato season. Soil total C, N, soluble P, exchangeable Ca, K,and Na were higher in the organic system than in the conventional system. Higher soil electrical conductivity was found in the CONV system compared to the other systems. Low input plots had soil characteristics intermediate to the other farming systems. Marketable and unmarketable yields were similar among the farming systems. Fruit N and Na were lower in the organic and low-input systems than in the conventional system. Fruit P and Ca contents were higher in the organic system than in the conventional system as a result of 11 years of manure applications. Soluble solids content, titrable acidity, color, and soluble solids yield were lower in 1998 in the organic system than in the conventional system, while no differences were found in 1999. Soil water content during the ripening stage was the major factor affecting the soluble solids content of the organic system. In the low input and conventional systems soluble solids content was most related to soil exchangeable Ca and EC, respectively.
Wesley R. Autio
The effects of rootstock on `Delicious' apple maturity, quality, size, mineral composition, and storability were studied over a 4-year period. Removing the effects of crop load and crop load within year by analysis of covariance produced results suggesting that M.27 EMLA and Ott.3 advanced fruit maturity and that M.7 EMLA delayed fruit maturity. M.9, MAC 9, OAR 1, M.9 EMLA, and M.26 EMLA either were inconsistent in their effect on maturity or consistently resulted in an intermediate maturity. Size, after adjusting for the effects of crop load and crop load within year, was consistently high for fruit from trees on M.9 EMLA, and lowest for fruit from trees on OAR 1. After adjusting for fruit size, fruit from trees on MAC 9 generally had high Ca contents, and fruit from trees on OAR 1 had low Ca contents. The effect of rootstock on storability appeared to be secondary and related to maturity and Ca level.
M. Hossein Behboudian and Colin Tod
The effect of preharvest CO2 enrichment (1000 μl·liter–1) on postharvest quality of tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Virosa') was studied with an emphasis on soluble sugars, ripening, and mineral composition. High-CO2 fruit had higher concentrations of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and total soluble solids than ambient-CO2 fruit. High-CO2 fruit also ripened more slowly and was characterized by lower respiration and ethylene production rates than ambient-CO2 fruit. Concentrations of N, P, and K were lower in the high-CO2 fruit than in the ambient-CO2 fruit, whereas those of S, Ca, and Mg were the same for both treatments. Preharvest CO2 enrichment of `Virosa' tomato enhances fruit desirability in terms of slower postharvest ripening and higher concentrations of soluble sugars and total soluble solids.
Waylen Y. Wan, Weixing Cao, and Theodore W. Tibbitts
Because tuberization in potatoes (Solarium tuberosum L.) reportedly is inhibited when stolons are immersed in liquid, this study was conducted to determine the effect of intermittent pH reductions of the nutrient solution on tuber induction of potatoes in solution culture. Tissue-culture potato plantlets were transplanted into solutions maintained at pH 5.5. The pH of the nutrient solution was changed to 3.5 and 4.0 for 10 hours on each of three dates (30, 35, and 40 days after transplanting). For the pH 3.5 treatment, tubers were observed first on day 42 and averaged 140 tubers per plant at harvest on day 54. For the pH 4.0 treatment, tubers were observed first on day 48 and averaged 40 tubers per plant at harvest. At a constant pH 5.5, tubers were observed on day 52 and averaged two tubers per plant at harvest. Plants with the intermittent pH 3.5 had smaller shoots and roots with shorter and thicker stolons compared to constant pH 5.5. With the intermittent pH 4.0, plants were of similar size, but stolons were shorter and slightly thickener compared to those from pH 5.5. Mineral composition of leaf tissues at harvest was similar for the three pH treatments. These results indicate that regulation of solution pH can be a useful technique for inducing tuberization in potatoes.
J. Lopez, L.E. Parent, N. Tremblay, and A. Gosselin
In hydroponic recirculating systems, sulfate ions can accumulate to excessive levels and interfere with other nutrient ions. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of four sulfate concentrations on growth and mineral nutrition of greenhouse tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Trust). Tomato seeds were sown in flats and subsequently transplanted into rockwool slabs. Ten days after transplanting, plants were given four sulfate concentrations in nutrient solutions (S0 = 0.1, S1 = 5.2, S2 = 10.4, and S4 = 20.8 mM). The plots were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with four replications. Treatment S0 reduced dry weight of the top portion of the plant. A sulfate shortage in the nutrient solution decreased S concentrations in the leaf and decreased fruit number. Activities and concentrations of major ions in solutions expressed in mM or as row-centered logratios were correlated with corresponding foliar concentrations expressed in grams of nutrient per kilogram of dry matter or as row-centered logratios. Data were presented in this manner in order to explore interactive models describing relationships between mineral composition of both nutrient solutions and plant tissues. High concentrations of sulfate ions in the nutrient solution up to 20.8 mM did not affect tomato growth or yield. Tomato plants appeared prone to sulfate deficiency, but tolerant to sulfate concentrations up to 20.8 mM in the nutrient solution.
Driss Iraqi, Serge Gagnon, Sylvain Dubé, and André Gosselin
Tomato production represents >70% of all greenhouse vegetables produced in Quebec, Canada. To obtain high yields and high quality fruit, an adequate control of greenhouse environmental characteristics, including the vapor pressure deficit (VPD), is necessary. Our study examines four VPD treatments (0.5 kPa day and night, 0.8 kPa day and night, 0.8 kPa day 0.5 kPa night, and automatic VPD management according to transpiration) and three photoperiods [12 h, 14 h, and variable-12 h (summer) 16 h (winter)] on growth, yield, and photosynthetic capacity of tomato plants. Greenhouse temperature was maintained at 22C day/18C night. Pure CO2 was injected into the greenhouse to maintain a constant atmospheric concentration of 800 ppm throughout the experiment. Growth, yield, and leaf mineral composition were determined monthly for each treatment during the experiment. The photosynthetic rate of the 5th and 10th leaves also were measured in addition to the content of chlorophyll a and b. Our results indicated an increase in total yield and photosynthetic rate under a VPD of 0.8 kPa during day and night. An increase in leaf mineral concentration also was noted in plants grown under high VPD. Differences in yield and photosynthetic capacity were not found between the three photoperiods studied. However, there was a tendency to have higher yields under longer photoperiods.
W. Mark Kliewer and Jason Benz
The effects of 7 rootstocks (AxR#1, 110R. 5C, 3309, 420A, 1616 and 039-16) grafted to Cabernet Sauvignon (clone #8) in combination with 3 between row spacings (2, 3, and 4 m) and 2 in-row spacings (1 and 2 m) on the level of minerals in petioles sampled at full bloom and at veraison on the mineral composition of fruits at harvest were evaluated over a 3 year period (1991 to 1993) in a replicated field plot established at Oakville in 1987. 039-16 petioles had the highest level of K, Ca and NO3, whereas 420A had the lowest concentration of these minerals, the other 5 stocks being intermediate. Petiole Mg level was highest in 420A and lowest in 039-16. 039-16 fruits at harvest had the highest level of K, malate, and pH, whereas 420A fruits were lowest in these substances. Between row spacing showed no significant effects on the concentration of minerals in leaves and fruits. However, leaves from vines spaced 1 m apart within rows had lower levels of Ca and Mg than 2 m vine spacing. One m vine spaced fruits were lower in °Brix hut higher in titratable acidity and malate than 2 m vine spaced fruits. Regression analysis showed that the number of roots per unit volume of soil was positively related to the concentration of K in leaves and fruits, regardless of the rootstock used.
Usman Siswanto and Frank B. Matta
This study was established to determine the influence of scion/stock combination on leaf area, yield efficiency, and fruit quality attributes in effort to identify the most suitable scion/stock combination for Mississippi. Twenty-nine scion/stock combinations were grown at the Pontotoc Ridge-Flatwoods Research and Extension Center, North Mississippi. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with six single tree replications. `Jon-A-Red' on Mark produced the smallest leaf area, while the largest leaf area was produced by the combination of `Royal Gala' on MM106 and `Blushing Golden' on M7A. Scion/stock combinations significantly affected yield efficiency, fruit yellow pigment dvelopment, firmness and fruit mineral composition. Scion cultivars on Mark resulted in the highest yield efficiency, except `Empire'. `Ultra Gold' and `Braeburn' on Mark and `Blushing Golden' on MM111 led to yellow pigmentation in the highest category. Meanwhile, `Braeburn' on Mark was among the scion/stock combinations that produced the firmest fruit. And fruit from trees on Mark consistently had high calcium (Ca) levels. After 7 years, `Royal Gala' on Mark produced the highest yield efficiency. `Braeburn' on Mark resulted in both the firmest fruit and the highest fruit Ca concentration.