A natural lipid, lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), was used as a tomato fruit ripening agent. The effect of this compound on hastening the ripening and on the defoliation of the `Heinz 7155' processing tomato and the Glamour fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was compared to the effect of ethephon. Vines were sprayed to runoff in the field with a hand sprayer and fruits were harvested 2 weeks or 20 days later in a single harvest operation. LPE (100 mg liter-1) accelerated ripening of both processing and fresh-market tomatoes without defoliation. LPE-treated tomatoes had a better shelf life than the control or ethephon-treated fruit, whether they were harvested at the breaker, pink, or red stage of maturity. The combination of LPE and ethephon (100 mg liter-1) enhanced tomato ripening without damaging the foliage, suggesting that LPE can mitigate the undesirable effects of ethephon on foliage and the fruit. The LPE-related lipid phosphatidyldimethylethanol-amine dipalmitoyl (PDED) also was able to enhance some aspects of keeping quality of tomato fruits, but was not able to enhance fruit ripening. Phosphatidylethanolamine was not as effective as LPE or PDED. It appears that the active molecule of this natural lipid is the lyso form. Our results provide evidence that LPE can enhance tomato fruit ripening and postharvest storage life of vine-ripe fruits and fruits picked at early ripeness stages.
Karim M. Farag and Jiwan P. Palta
Shimon Meir, Sonia Philosoph-Hadas, and Nehemia Aharoni
A newly developed rapid and convenient method was used for fractionation and analysis of fluorescent compounds (FCs) formed during lipid peroxidation in parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill.) leaves. These lipofuscin-like FCs [which arise in vivo from reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) with amino acids] were found to increase during the senescence of detached parsley leaves, following the commencement of chlorophyll degradation and proteolysis. However, accumulation of FCs in response to exogenous ethylene coincided with the onset of chlorophyll loss and proteolysis on day 2 and was accelerated markedly later. Unlike FC accumulation, levels of aldehydes and MDA in control leaves increased more drastically during senescence, but were not affected significantly by exogenous ethylene. The results suggest that the accumulation of FCs in detached parsley leaves exposed to exogenous ethylene is an early senescence-associated process.
Arambage Abesinghe and James O. Garner
Storage roots of `Beauregard' and `Centennial' were used to identify varietal differences in fatty acid composition in plasmalemma lipids during storage conditions. Total plasmalemma fatty acid composition of glycolipids and phospholipids in storage roots of `Beauregard' and `Centennial' did not differ. The fatty acid composition of MGDG and DGDG in storage root plasmalemma was >50% unsaturated fatty acids in `Beauregard'. The high percentage of 18:2 (65.44%) fatty acid compared to `Centennial' (19.70%) and 79.35% total unsaturated fatty acid content in MGDG may contribute to low temperature tolerance in `Beauregard'. The higher percentages of 16:1 and 22:1 fatty acids in `Centennial' compared to `Beauregard' contributed to MGDG fatty acid unsaturation. However, these fatty acids have not been related to chilling tolerance.
Zhiguo Ju and William J. Bramlage
Phenolics were extracted from fruit cuticles of `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Empire', and `Cortland' apples, using either cuticular wax scraped from fruit peel or enzyme-isolated cuticles. The concentrations of free phenolics in fruit cuticle ranged from 8 to 45 mg•g-1, and bound phenolics ranged from 50 to 110 mg•g-1 in these cultivars. Free cuticular phenolic concentrations in the four cultivars were in the order `Golden Delicious' > `Delicious' > `Empire' > `Cortland'. In a linoleate emulsion (oil-in-water) system, diphenylamine (DPA, lipophilic) displayed higher antioxidant activity than methanol-extracted cuticular phenolics (hydrophilic). In an α-farnesene-hexane (bulk oil) system, however, antioxidant activities of methanol-extracted cuticular phenolics were higher than that of DPA. Lipid-soluble antioxidants (LSAs) from cuticle displayed higher activity in the linoleate emulsion system than in α-farnesene-hexane system. Only about 10% to 15% of the total LSA activity in fruit peel was detected in isolated fruit cuticle. Among the four cultivars, LSA activity in epidermal and hypodermal cells was similar in `Golden Delicious', `Empire', and `Cortland' apples, while `Delicious' had lower activity.
Arturo Cedeño Maldonado, Patrick E. Chesney, and Essau Orengo
The chironja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbcek* Citrus paradisi Macf.) is a citrus hybrid of excellent quality. Attempts at commercialization has been limited by the susceptibility of the fruit to rapid rind breakdown after harvest. A study was undertaken to determine the effects of postharvest calcium chloride (CaCl2) dips and lipid waxes on rind quality of two chironja clones at two maturity stages. CaCl2 dips had no significant effect on weight loss irresponsible of clones and maturity. Waxing improved lustre of fruits. retarded aging and shrinkage and slightly inhibited degreening. Pac Rite wax was more effective than Prima Fresh wax. Clone 2-4 was less resistant than clone 3-8 to rind breakdown and made better use of the wax treatments. Mature yellow fruits had a better response to treatments than mature green fruits in retarding weight loss. Untreated fruits deteriorated rapidly after five days. Symptoms of rind breakdown were incipient in calcium treated fruits. Preharvest calcium applications and/or postharvest waxing may reduce the incidence of rind breakdown in the chimnja.
Eric A. Curry, Carolina Torres, and Luis Neubauer
of fruit enlargement had a greater propensity to develop LB, led to the hypothesis that reducing water vapor permeance of the cuticle preharvest by applying a lipid-based, hydrophobic coating would reduce LB development on fruit in storage
Mustafa Ozgen, Senay Ozgen, and Jiwan P. Palta
Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that lysophoshatidylethanolamine (LPE) is able to accelerate fruit ripening while at the same time promoting shelf life. LPE is a natural lipid and is commercially extracted from egg yolks and soybeans. We studied the influence of LPE on the pattern of anthocyanin accumulation and storage quality of cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. cultivar Stevens). For this purpose 2 x 2-m plots were established in cranberry beds at two separate locations near Wisconsin Rapids. Experiments were conducted in 1997 and 1998 seasons. Plots were sprayed with LPE (extracted from egg yolk and soybean) 3 to 4 weeks before harvest. Spray solution included 200 ppm LPE, 3% ethanol, and 0.1% detergents (either Tergitol or Sylguard). Fruit samples were taken from a part in the plot periodically to determine the changes in the fruit. The rest of the plots were commercially wet harvested with a machine and stored in cold storage. Marketable fruit were counted at various times of cold storage to determine effect of LPE on shelf life of cranberries. In general, application of LPE from both sources resulted in 20% to 35 % increase in fruit anthocyanin contents. Also LPE treatment resulted in 10% to 20% increase in marketable fruit in cold storage. A postharvest dip of cranberry fruit with 50 ppm LPE solution for 15 min also resulted in about a 20% to 30% increase in marketable berries during cold storage. The results of this study shows that pre- and postharvest applications of LPE can add value to cranberry crop including better and more uniform colored fruit, enhance self life, and earlier harvest.
Shiow Y. Wang, Miklos Faust, and Michael J. Line
The effect of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on apical dominance in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) buds was examined by studying changes In proton density (free water) and membrane lipid composition in lateral buds. Decapitation induced budbreak and enhanced lateral bud growth. IAA replaced apical control of lateral bud paradormancy. Maximal inhibition was obtained when IAA was applied immediately after the apical bud was removed. Delaying this application weakens the effect of IAA. An increase in proton density in lateral buds was observable 2 days after decapitation, whereas the change in membrane lipid composition occurred 4 days later. Decapitating the terminal bud induced an increase in membrane galacto- and phospholipids. and the ratio of unsaturated to corresponding saturated fatty acids. Decapitation also induced a decrease in the ratio of free sterols to phospholipids in lateral buds. Application of IAA to the terminal end of decapitated shoots inhibited the increase of proton density and prevented changes in the membrane lipid composition of lateral buds.