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Dong-Lim Yoo and Seung-Woo Lee

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of artificial light sources for light period extension on growth and flowering of statice `Sophia' and `Early Blue'. The seeds were sown on 10 June in a plug tray with 128 plugs. The seedlings were grown at the highland (800 m above sea level) for 50 days, and transplanted on 30 July in 20-cm-diameter plastic pots. High-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) (220V, 400W), incandescent lamps (Il) (220V, 200W), and fluorescent lamps (Fl) (220V, 40W) for day length extension (16-h photoperiod) as compared with short day (8-h photoperiod) were tested. HPS gave the greatest photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), but Fl did the smallest. HPS or Fl as compared with Il showed high ratio of red/far-red light. The leaves of plant grown under HPS were effective for light absorbance and chlorophyll contents. HPS promoted photosynthesis as much as light period extension, while more respiration than photosynthesis occurred under Fl affected by low PAR. Long day condition as light period extension hastened flowering of statice, and HPS or Il were more effective than Fl on flowering among artificial light sources tested. The light compensation and saturation points of statice were 50 and 500 μmol·m–2·s–1, respectively. Photosynthesis hastened at high temperature, but amount of photosynthesis at vegetative stage showed much higher than flowering stage under the condition below 20 °C These results indicated that day length extension with HPS increased productivity and quality for cut flower of statice at the highland in Korea.

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Paula M. Pijut and Melanie J. Barker

Butternut trees are becoming endangered as a result of butternut canker disease; thus, it is desirable to propagate disease-resistant trees for screening and provenance tests. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for successful cutting propagation. In 1998, 10 trees were selected from a 4-year-old butternut plantation located in Rosemount, Minn. Hardwood cuttings were collected 30 Mar., 21 Apr., and 6 May. The auxins, indole-3-butyric acid-potassium salt (KIBA) in water at 0, 29, or 74 mmol·L-1 were tested for root induction. The basal end of cuttings were dipped in treatment solutions for 10 to 15 s and placed in a 1 peat: 1 perlite mixture in Deepots™ (D40) in a mist bed. Mist was applied for 5 s every 15 min. Greenhouse conditions were: 12-h photoperiod provided by high-pressure sodium lamps (60 μmol·m-2·s-1), 22 °C, and bottom heat of 27 °C (heating pads). Softwood cuttings were collected 20 May, 18 June, 30 June, and 23 July. Rooting treatment solutions and greenhouse conditions were the same as for the hardwood cuttings, except no heating pads were used. Rooted cuttings were planted in Treepots™ (10 × 10 × 36 cm) and gradually hardened off from the mist bed. Hardwood cuttings from the first two collection dates did not initiate roots. Best rooting (12.5%) was achieved on hardwood cuttings collected 6 May using 29 mmol·L-1 KIBA. Softwood cuttings rooted to some degree at all concentrations of rooting solution and at every collection date. The greatest rooting (70%) was achieved using 74 mmol·L-1 IBA. In general, best rooting percentages were achieved with softwood cuttings collected 18 June and 23 July and treated with 62 mmol·L-1 KIBA or 74 mmol·L-1 IBA. Both rooted hardwood and softwood cuttings were successfully acclimatized from the mist bed and many have initiated new growth.

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Emily A. Clough, Arthur C. Cameron, Royal D. Heins, and William H. Carlson

Oenothera fruticosa L.`Youngii-Lapsley' and Stokesia laevis L'Hér. `Klaus Jelitto' are two hardy herbaceous perennials with great potential as pot crops. The vernalization and photoperiod requirements were examined for each species. Plants were cooled for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 weeks at 5 °C with a 9-h photoperiod. After cold treatment, plants were forced in greenhouses at 20 °C under a 16-h photoperiod using high-pressure sodium lamps. The photoperiod requirement was determined by forcing plants at 20 °C with and without a 15-week cold treatment at 5 °C under 10-, 12-, 13-, 14-, 16-, 24-h and 4-h night interruption using incandescent lamps. Plants of Oenothera fruticosa `Youngii-Lapsley' cooled for 0 weeks did not flower. All plants cooled for 3 weeks flowered and time to flower decreased from 53 to 43 days as duration of cold increased from 3 to 15 weeks. `Youngii-Lapsley' flowered under every photoperiod, but time to flower and number of flowers decreased from 54 to 40 days as photoperiod increased from 10 to 24 h. Percentage flowering of Stokesia laevis `Klaus Jelitto' increased from 50 to 100, and time to flower decreased from 112 to 74 days as duration of cold increased from 0 to 6 weeks. Without a cold treatment, plants of `Klaus Jelitto' flowered only under daylengths of 12, 13, and 14 h. After cold treatment, plants flowered under every photoperiod except 24 h, and time to flower decreased from 122 to 65 days as photoperiod increased from 10 to 16 h. Additional aspects of flowering and the effect of different forcing temperatures will be discussed.

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Erik S. Runkle and Royal D. Heins

For many plants, light quality has a pronounced effect on plant morphology; light with a low red (R, 600 to 700 nm) to far-red (FR, 700 to 800 nm) ratio promotes stem elongation and a high R: FR, or blue light (B, 400 to 500 nm), suppresses it. In addition, FR light is required for rapid flowering in some species, particularly for long-day plants. Our objective was to quantify how flexible spectral filters, which selectively reduce FR, B, or R, influence plant height and flowering of the quantitative long-day plants Pisum sativum L. `Utrillo' and Viola ×wittrockiana Gams. `Crystal Bowl Yellow'. Plants were grown at 20 °C with reduced FR, B, or R environments or with a neutral density control (C) filter. Calculated phytochrome photoequilebria were 0.78, 0.73, 0.71, or 0.46 for the altered FR, B, C, or R environments, respectively. All filter treatments transmitted a similar photosynthetic photon flux. Sixteen-hour photoperiods were created with natural daylight supplemented with high-pressure sodium lamps positioned above filters. Viola grown under the FR filter never reached 100% flowering within 8 weeks, and visible bud appearance was delayed by at least 17 days compared to all other filters. The R and B filters enhanced peduncle length by at least 25% compared to the C or FR filters. In Pisum, average internode length was 2.2, 2.9, 3.4, and 3.7 cm under the FR, C, B, and R filters, respectively, all statistically different. Fresh and dry shoot weights were similar under the C and FR filters but were at least 35% greater under the B filter and 35% lower under the R filter.

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Catherine M. Whitman, Erik S. Runkle, and Arthur C. Cameron

Flowering of Aquilegia is generally considered to require vernalization, while photoperiod has little or no effect. The cold treatment is most effective when plants have passed the juvenile stage (often 12 to 15 leaves) prior to vernalization. We performed experiments on a cultivar reported to have a reduced vernalization requirement. Seedlings of Aquilegia ×hybrida Sims `Origami Blue and White' in 128-cell plug trays with four or five leaves were either placed directly into a 5 °C cooler or transplanted to 13-cm containers. Plants were grown (bulked) for 0, 3, or 6 weeks at 20 °C under 9-h short days (SD) or 16-h long days (LD) provided by incandescent lamps at 1 to 3 μmol·m-2·s-1. Plants had seven or eight leaves after 3 weeks bulking and 13 or 14 leaves after 6 weeks bulking. They were then cooled at 5 °C for 0, 5, or 10 weeks and placed in a common forcing environment of 20 °C under an LD provided by high-pressure sodium lamps. Aquilegia plants placed directly into the forcing environment flowered in 89 and 97 days in years 1 and 2, respectively. Flowering percentage of plants cooled in the plug tray decreased with increasing duration of cold treatment, and only 15% flowered after a 10-week cold treatment. All plants bulked for 3 or 6 weeks prior to cold treatment flowered, and in 26 to 35 days. Surprisingly, all plants that were moved directly from bulking treatments to the forcing environment (no cold treatment) flowered, and flowering was most rapid (36 days) in plants exposed to 6 weeks of SD before forcing. Therefore, our data indicate that SD can at least partially substitute for a cold treatment in this Aquilegia cultivar.

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John Erwin, Esther Gesick, Ben Dill, and Charles Rohwer

Photoperiod, irradiance, and/or a cool temperature effects on Chamaelobivia hybrid `Rose Quartz' flowering was studied. Two- to 3-year-old plants were grown for 4 months under natural daylight (DL; August–November) in a greenhouse maintained at 26 ± 2 °C. Plants were then placed in either of two greenhouses: a cool temperature house (5 ± 2 °C; natural daylight), or a lighting treatment house (22 °C day/18 ± 1 °C night temperature, respectively). The lighting treatment house had eight light environments: 1) short day (SD; 8 h; 0800–1600 HR); 2) SD+25–35 μmol·m-2·s-1; 3) SD+45-50 μmol·m-2·s-1; 4) SD+85-95 μmol·m-2·s-1; 5) DL plus night interruption lighting (NI; 2200–0200 HR; 2 μmol·m-2·s-1 from incandescent lamps); 6) DL+25-35 μmol·m-2·s-1 (lighted from 0800–0200 HR); 7) DL+45-50 μmol·m-2·s-1; and 8) DL+85-95 μmol·m-2·s-1. Supplemental lighting was provided using high-pressure sodium lamps. Plants were placed in the cool temperature environment for 0, 4, 8, or 12 weeks before being placed under lighting treatments. All plants received a 6-week lighting treatment and were then placed in the finishing greenhouse (22 ± 2 °C). Data were collected on the date when each flower opened (five only), the flower number per plant, and flower longevity (five only). Vernalization interacted with photoperiod to affect flowering. Unvernalized plants exhibited an obligate long-day requirement for flowering. Vernalized plants exhibited a facultative long-day requirement for flowering. The impact of vernalization, photoperiod, and irradiance on flower number, time to flower, and longevity will also be discussed.

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John Erwin, Esther Gesick, Ben Dill, and Charles Rohwer

The impact of photoperiod, irradiance, and/or cool temperature on flowering and/or dormancy in Mamillopsis senilis and Echinopsis and Trichocereus hybrids was studied. Two- to 3-year-old plants (180 plants of each type) were grown for 4 months under natural daylight (DL) conditions (August–November) in a greenhouse maintained at 26 ± 2 °C. Plants were then placed in either of two greenhouses: a cool temperature house (5 ± 2 °C; DL), or a lighting treatment house (22/18 ± 1 °C day/night temperature, respectively). The lighting treatment house had eight light environments: 1) short day (SD; 8 h; 0800–1600 hr); 2) SD+25–35 μmol·m-2·s-1; 3) SD+45–50 μmol·m-2·s-1; 4) SD+85–95 μmol·m-2·s-1; 5) DL plus night interruption lighting (NI; 2200–0200 hr; 2 μmol·m-2·s-1 from incandescent lamps); 6) DL+25–35 μmol·m-2·s-1 (lighted from 0800–0200 hr); 7) DL+45–50 μmol·m-2·s-1; and 8) DL+85–95 μmol·m-2·s-1. Supplemental lighting was provided using high-pressure sodium lamps. Plants were placed in the cool temperature house for 0, 4, 8 or 12 weeks before being placed under lighting treatments. All plants received lighting treatments for 6 weeks and were then placed in a finishing greenhouse (DL; 22 ± 2 °C). Data were collected on approximate day when growth resumed, the date when each flower opened (five only), total flower number per plant, and how long each flower stayed open (five only). Whether species exhibited dormancy and what conditions, if any, broke that dormancy was identified. Species were also classified into photoperiodic, irradiance, and vernalization response groups with respect to flowering.

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Erik S. Runkle, Catherine M. Whitman, and Mike Olrich

Uniconazole is a plant growth regulator used to inhibit internode elongation on container-grown ornamental plants. Uniconazole is effective on a wide range of plants, but is not commonly used on bedding plants because of concerns about stunting and flowering delay. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of uniconazole when used as a drench, eliminating the variability inherent in a spray application. Seedlings of Celosia argentea L. var. plumosa L. `Fresh Look Red', Petunia ×hybrida Vilm.-Andr. `Prostrate Wave Rose', Salvia splendens Sell ex Roem. & Schult. `Vista Red', and Tagetes erecta L. `Inca II Gold' in 288-cell plug trays were transplanted 2 days after arrival into 10-cm pots filled with a soilless medium containing no bark. Plants were placed in a greenhouse with a setpoint of 20 °C and under a 16-h photoperiod provided by high-pressure sodium lamps. A single drench application of 0, 0.04, 0.07, 0.15, or 0.30 mg active ingredient/pot was made 11 days after transplant. The uniconazole drench inhibited internode elongation in these species and higher rates provided a greater degree of response. At time of flowering, the 0.30-mg uniconazole drench inhibited shoot length in Celosia, Petunia, Salvia, and Tagetes by 36%, 23% 26%, and 13%, respectively. Drenches of 0.04 or 0.07 mg provided a desirable degree of height control for Celosia and Salvia. For vigorous species like Petunia or Tagetes, 0.15 to 0.30 mg may be more appropriate. We observed a 1- or 2-day delay in flowering of Salvia and Tagetes plants drenched with 0.30 mg, but no delays in Petunia flowering.

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K. Rachelle Goldman and Cary A. Mitchell

The day-neutral, semidwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Ai-Nan-Tsao was grown in a greenhouse under summer conditions using high-pressure sodium lamps to extend the natural photoperiod. After allowing 2 weeks for germination, stand establishment, and thinning to a consistent planting density of 212 plants/m2, stands were maintained under continuous lighting for 35 or 49 days before shifting to 8- or 12-h photoperiods until harvest 76 days after planting. Non-shifted control treatments consisting of 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods also were maintained throughout production. Tiller number increased as duration of exposure to continuous light increased before shifting to shorter photoperiods. However, shoot harvest index and yield efficiency rate were lower for all plants receiving continuous light than for those under the 8- or 12-h photoperiods. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production had the highest grain yield per plant and equaled the 8-h-photoperiod control plants for the lowest tiller number per plant. As long as stands were exposed to continuous light, tiller formation continued. Shifting to shorter photoperiods late in the cropping cycle resulted in newly formed tillers that were either sterile or unable to mature grain before harvest. Late-forming tillers also suppressed yield of grain in early-forming tillers, presumably by competing for photosynthate or for remobilized assimilate during senescence. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production not only produced the highest grain yield at harvest but had the highest shoot harvest index, which is important for resource-recovery strategies in advanced life-support systems proposed for space.

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Tracy A. Ohler and Cary A. Mitchell

Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR: g·m-2·day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass·[g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER: g edible biomass·m-2·day-1per [g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines `IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and `IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g·m-2·day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg·m-2·day-1·g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line `IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line `IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288.