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Seenivasan Natarajan* and Jeff S. Kuehny

The demand for new and/or improved herbaceous annuals and perennials continues to increase, making information on production and viability of these plants a necessity. In Louisiana and the Southern U.S., one of the greatest impediments to production of marketable herbaceous plants and their longevity is high temperature. Herbaceous plants have various stages of vegetative growth and flowering; high temperatures during these developmental stages can have a tremendous impact on plant metabolism, and thus plant growth and development. The goal of this research was to better understand the differences between heat tolerant (HT) and heat sensitive (HS) species and cultivars at various high temperatures in terms of whole plant growth, flowering, photosynthesis, carbohydrate content, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll content and plant small heat shock proteins (HSP) expression levels. Salvia splendens Vista Series (HT), Sizzler series (HS); Viola witrokiana `Crystal Bowl Purple' (HT), `Majestic Giant Red Blotch' (HS), F1 Nature Series (HT) and F1 Iona Series (HS); Gaillardia × grandiflora `Goblin' (HT) and Coreopsis grandiflora `Early Sunrise' (HS) were grown from seed in growth chambers under 25/18 °C (day/night) cycles. Plants at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after germination were subjected to different high temperature treatments of 25 (control), 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C for 3 h. Results show that there was a significant difference in net photosynthesis, electrolyte leakage, soluble carbohydrate content and HSP levels between HT and HS cultivars. Effects of high temperature on plant growth, chlorophyll content, and number of days to flower, flower size, and marketable quality were also significantly different.

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Jessica Chitwood, Ainong Shi, Michael Evans, Curt Rom, Edward E. Gbur Jr., Dennis Motes, Pengyin Chen, and David Hensley

proteins in thylakoid membranes aggregate, slowing down the plant’s ability to photosynthesize ( Tang et al., 2007 ). In addition, the first heat-shock proteins in spinach leaf tissue are induced when the temperature reaches 28 °C and a full range of heat-shock

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Jing Mao, Hongliang Xu, Caixia Guo, Jun Tong, Yanfang Dong, Dongyun Xu, Fazhi Chen, and Yuan Zhou

accumulation of heat shock proteins. The expression of heat shock proteins is regulated by heat shock transcription factor (HSF) ( Nover et al., 2001 ; Sangster and Queitsch, 2005 ). The conservation of heat shock transcription factors is the main regulatory

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Mikal E. Saltveit

from those induced by wounding or chilling to the production of innocuous heat-shock proteins greatly alleviated the undesirable responses to other abiotic stresses; e.g., they were the first to show that induction of heat-shock proteins increased

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Min Wang, Wenrui Liu, Biao Jiang, Qingwu Peng, Xiaoming He, Zhaojun Liang, and Yu’e Lin

proteins ( Wahid et al., 2007 ; Xu et al., 2006 ). To survive HS, plants have to regulate the transcription of stress-related genes, signal transduction pathways ( Wahid et al., 2007 ) such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) ( Bowen et al., 2002 ; Xu et al

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Lisa G. Neven

( Yocum and Denlinger, 1994 ), in which anoxic conditions blocked the ability of flesh flies to cold harden rapidly. There is also an indication that anoxia can inhibit the formation of heat shock proteins in CM (Neven, unpublished data). Heat shock

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Jeffrey A. Anderson

Two primary focal points in abiotic stress tolerance are heat shock proteins and compatible solutes. Compatible solutes have been implicated in resistance to water deficit, salt, and temperature stresses and can accumulate to high concentrations

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Dilip R. Panthee, Jonathan P. Kressin, and Ann Piotrowski

, including Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, investigating the genetic mechanisms of adaptation. Heat shock protein analyses have been reported since the 1970s. In tomato, several studies have tried to identify genes conferring heat stress tolerance so they

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Michele A. Stanton, Joseph C. Scheerens, Richard C. Funt, and John R. Clark

proteins when grown at high temperatures, we did not examine floral tissues for their presence. Heat-shock proteins have been found in floral tissues of other heat stressed plants ( Hernandez and Vierling, 1993 ; Sanmiya et al., 2005 ; Young et al., 2004

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Marja Rantanen and Pauliina Palonen

of dormancy and microarray analysis in red raspberry have revealed that during dormancy release, genes encoding heat shock proteins as well as other stress response and detoxification-related genes are expressed ( Mazzitelli et al., 2007