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Arvazena E. Clardy and Stephen Garton

146 ORAL SESSION 45 (Abstr. 338–343) Growth Regulators/Cross-commodity

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J. Million, J. Barrett, D. Clark, and T. Nell

66 ORAL SESSION 15 (Abstr. 478–484) Plant Growth Regulators/Marketing–Floriculture/Foliage

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Patricia I. Garriz, Hugo L. Alvarez, and Graciela M. Colavita

51 POSTER SESSION 2C (Abstr. 090–100) Growth & Development—Woody Ornamentals/Turf/Tree Fruit

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Maynard E. Bates

121 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 613-620) CROSS-COMMODITY GROWTH CHAMBERS AND CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTS

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John M. Ruter and Jeff L. Sibley

In 1991, a cooperative project with the U.S. National Arboretum in Washington, D.C., was initiated in Tifton, Ga. (USDA hardiness zone 8a) to evaluate red maples (Acer rubrum L.) potentially suitable for the coastal plain region of the southeastern U.S. Greatest annual height growth across all cultivars over 6 years was for `Alapaha', a seedling selection from southern Georgia with annual height growth of 35 inches (88.0 cm), and several seedling selections from northern Florida with annual height increases in excess of 33 inches (86.0 cm). Selections showing the least average annual height growth were NA-56024 and NA-57772 (`Red Rocket'). For commercially available cultivars, the most dependable for fall color in Tifton was `October Glory'®. In addition, two new selections from the National Arboretum have also shown excellent fall color—`Somerset' and `Brandywine'.

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Wang Yong, Lu Wangjin, Li Jianguo, and Jiang Yueming

To understand the relationship between fruit cracking and gene expression patterns, we identified two expansin genes from litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit and then examined their expression profiles in pericarp and aril at different stages of fruit development, using the cracking-resistant cultivar Huaizhi and the cracking-susceptible cultivar Nuomici. Two full-length cDNAs of 1087 and 1010 base pairs encoding expansin, named LcExp1 and LcExp2, were isolated from expanding fruit using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) methods. LcExp1 mRNA could be detected from the early stage of fruit rapid growth (59 days after anthesis). The LcExp1 mRNA increased and reached to the highest level at the end of growth phase (80 days after anthesis) in pericarp of `Huaizhi', while the mRNA could be detected at the stage of rapid fruit growth, then increased slightly and finally kept remained almost constant in the pericarp of `Nuomici'. Similar accumulation of LcExp2 mRNA was observed in fruit aril of `Nuomici' and `Huaizhi', whereas LcExp2 accumulated only in pericarp of `Huaizhi' but did not appear in pericarp of `Nuomici'. The results indicate that expression of two expansin genes in litchi pericarp are closely associated with fruit growth and cracking.

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B.E. Maust and J.G. Williamson

Experiments were conducted with `Hamlin' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] budded on Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) or Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] seedling rootstocks to determine minimum container solution N concentrations required for optimum growth and fertilizer uptake efficiency at various growth stages. Plants were fertigated daily with 1 liter of N solution at either 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg·liter-1 from NH4NO3 or 0, 3.13, 6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg·liter-1 from NH4NO3 dissolved in a complete nutrient solution, respectively. Percentage of N in the mature plant tissues increased as N concentration in the medium solution increased. Shoot length and leaf area increased as N concentrations increased up to a critical concentration of 15 to 19 mg·liter-1. The critical N concentration for root, shoot, and total plant dry weight was ≈18 mg·liter-1 for `Hamlin'-Cleopatra mandarin nursery plants and 15 mg·liter-1 for `Hamlin'-Carrizo nursery plants. The critical N concentration for relative total plant dry weight accumulation (percentage) for the two experiments was 16.8 mg·liter-1. In a separate experiment, plants were given labeled fertilizer N (FN) (15NH4 15NO3) at one of five growth stages: A) in the middle of rapid shoot extension of the third flush, B) immediately following the cessation of the third flush shoot extension but during leaf expansion, C) immediately following leaf expansion, D) before the fourth flush, or E) in the middle of rapid shoot extension of the fourth flush. Labeled FN recovery increased during rapid shoot extension of the fourth scion flush compared to the other labeling periods. FN uptake per gram of total plant dry weight was greatest during rapid shoot extension (A and E) and lowest during the intermediate labeling periods (B-D). FN supplied 21% to 22% of the N required for new growth during rapid shoot extension.

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Johnny Carter and Sauveur Mahotiere

128 POSTER SESSION 18 (Abstr. 763-787) Floriculture: Growth and Development

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George M. Greene II

131 ORAL SESSION 27 (Abstr. 189–195) Growth Regulators–Fruits

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Douglas D. Archbold

177 ORAL SESSION 53 (Abstr. 376–383) Fruits: Growth and Development II