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Scovia Adikini, Settumba B. Mukasa, Robert O.M. Mwanga, and Richard W. Gibson

al., 2014 ). Reversion is a phenomenon whereby virus-infected plants naturally become healthy through the mechanism of gene silencing ( Gibson et al., 2014 ). Reversion has been reported in cassava from Cassava mosaic geminiviruses (family

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Dongru Kang, Silan Dai, Kang Gao, Fan Zhang, and Hong Luo

Chinese with an English abstract) Martienssen, R. 1996 Epigenetic phenomena: Paramutation and gene silencing in plants Curr. Biol. 6 7 1208 1216 Song, Y.P. 2013 Genetic regulation of floral development in Populus tomentosa [Ph. D. Dissertation]. Beijing

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou, and Yuncong Yao

brassinosteroids to regulate gene expression and promote stem elongation Cell 109 181 191 Zhang, J. Tian, J. Tai, D.Q. Li, K.T. Zhu, Y.J. Yao, Y.C. 2016 An optimized TRV-based virus-induced gene silencing protocol for Malus crabapple Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult

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Shi-Lin Tian, Li Li, Yue-Qin Tian, S.N.M. Shah, and Zhen-Hui Gong

× ananassa ) fruit ripening by using the tobacco rattle virus–induced gene silencing technique. Luo et al. (2014) found that exogenous ABA induces anthocyanin biosynthesis to promote sweet cherry ( Prunus avium ) fruit ripening. ABA not only regulates fruit

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John R. Stommel, Gordon J. Lightbourn, Brenda S. Winkel, and Robert J. Griesbach

in length are involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing by targeting mRNAs for degradation via an endonuclease complex ( Baulcombe, 2004 ; Jones-Rhoades et al., 2006 ). Preliminary observations suggest that miRNAs could be involved in

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Cecilia E. McGregor, Douglas W. Miano, Don R. LaBonte, Mary Hoy, Chris A. Clark, and Guilherme J.M. Rosa

leads to SPVD is not understood, but it has been proposed that it involves suppression of gene silencing ( Kreuze et al., 2005 ). Kreuze et al. (2002) identified two unique proteins, p22 and a class 1 RNase III in SPCSV, that were thought to play a

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Robert L. Jarret, Gloria E. Barboza, Fabiane Rabelo da Costa Batista, Terry Berke, Yu-Yu Chou, Amanda Hulse-Kemp, Neftali Ochoa-Alejo, Pasquale Tripodi, Aniko Veres, Carolina Carrizo Garcia, Gabor Csillery, Yung-Kuang Huang, Erzsebet Kiss, Zsofia Kovacs, Mihaly Kondrak, Magda Lisette Arce-Rodriguez, Marisel A. Scaldaferro, and Antal Szoke

) . Few of the many genes reported to be involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis have been characterized. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was used to demonstrate the participation of Kas , Comt , p Amt , and AT3 in the pathway ( Abraham-Juárez et al

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Kelly J. Vining, Ryan N. Contreras, Martin Ranik, and Steven H. Strauss

Isolation of a LEAFY homolog from Populus tomentosa : Expression of PtLFY in P. tomentosa floral buds and PtLFY-IR-mediated gene silencing in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) Plant Cell Rpt. 30 89 100 Arias, R.S. Filichkin, S.A. Strauss, S.H. 2006 Divide

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Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, Richard Hassell, and Judy Thies

genes ( Lough and Lucas, 2006 ; Omid et al., 2007 ). Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing, a gene expression regulation mechanism involved in different layers of plant innate immunity ( Padmanabhan et al., 2009

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Sheng Li, Feng Wu, Yongping Duan, Ariel Singerman, and Zhengfei Guan

Localized expression of antimicrobial proteins mitigates huanglongbing symptoms in Mexican lime J. Biotechnol. 285 74 83 Hajeri, S. Killiny, N. El-Mohtar, C. Dawson, W.O. Gowda, S. 2014 Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing