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Ryo Matsuda, Chieri Kubota, M. Lucrecia Alvarez, and Guy A. Cardineau

reversion of F1-V gene silencing in tomato Plant Mol. Biol. 68 61 79 Cook, R. Calvin, L. 2005 Greenhouse tomatoes change the dynamics of the North American fresh tomato industry USDA Econ. Res. Rpt. No. 2 April 2005 < http

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Xiaoling He, Susan C. Miyasaka, Yi Zou, Maureen M.M. Fitch, and Yun J. Zhu

the transgene and the other three lines had two or three copies. Multiple copies of genes are thought to be undesirable as a result of recombination, instability, and gene silencing ( Veluthambi et al., 2003 ). Interestingly, despite the multiple

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John R. Stommel, Gordon J. Lightbourn, Brenda S. Winkel, and Robert J. Griesbach

in length are involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing by targeting mRNAs for degradation via an endonuclease complex ( Baulcombe, 2004 ; Jones-Rhoades et al., 2006 ). Preliminary observations suggest that miRNAs could be involved in

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou, and Yuncong Yao

brassinosteroids to regulate gene expression and promote stem elongation Cell 109 181 191 Zhang, J. Tian, J. Tai, D.Q. Li, K.T. Zhu, Y.J. Yao, Y.C. 2016 An optimized TRV-based virus-induced gene silencing protocol for Malus crabapple Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult

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Cecilia E. McGregor, Douglas W. Miano, Don R. LaBonte, Mary Hoy, Chris A. Clark, and Guilherme J.M. Rosa

leads to SPVD is not understood, but it has been proposed that it involves suppression of gene silencing ( Kreuze et al., 2005 ). Kreuze et al. (2002) identified two unique proteins, p22 and a class 1 RNase III in SPCSV, that were thought to play a

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Dongru Kang, Silan Dai, Kang Gao, Fan Zhang, and Hong Luo

Chinese with an English abstract) Martienssen, R. 1996 Epigenetic phenomena: Paramutation and gene silencing in plants Curr. Biol. 6 7 1208 1216 Song, Y.P. 2013 Genetic regulation of floral development in Populus tomentosa [Ph. D. Dissertation]. Beijing

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Robert L. Jarret, Gloria E. Barboza, Fabiane Rabelo da Costa Batista, Terry Berke, Yu-Yu Chou, Amanda Hulse-Kemp, Neftali Ochoa-Alejo, Pasquale Tripodi, Aniko Veres, Carolina Carrizo Garcia, Gabor Csillery, Yung-Kuang Huang, Erzsebet Kiss, Zsofia Kovacs, Mihaly Kondrak, Magda Lisette Arce-Rodriguez, Marisel A. Scaldaferro, and Antal Szoke

) . Few of the many genes reported to be involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis have been characterized. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was used to demonstrate the participation of Kas , Comt , p Amt , and AT3 in the pathway ( Abraham-Juárez et al

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Holly A. Little, Rebecca Grumet, and James F. Hancock

-aminocyloproplane-1-carboxylate synthase RNA Plant Sci. 161 969 977 Xiong, A.-S. Yao, Q.-H. Peng, R.-H. Li, X. Han, P.-L. Fan, H.Q. 2005 Different effects on ACC oxidase gene silencing triggered by RNA interference in transgenic tomato Plant Cell Rpt. 23 639 646

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Jin Jiao, Xing Liu, Juyou Wu, Guohua Xu, and Shaoling Zhang

that pollen-tube growth was inhibited when PbrMAPK13 had been silenced ( Fig. 6A ). AS5 was selected for the subsequent experiments. qPCR results indicated that the gene expression of PbrMAPK13 was significantly downregulated after the specific gene

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Kelly J. Vining, Ryan N. Contreras, Martin Ranik, and Steven H. Strauss

Isolation of a LEAFY homolog from Populus tomentosa : Expression of PtLFY in P. tomentosa floral buds and PtLFY-IR-mediated gene silencing in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) Plant Cell Rpt. 30 89 100 Arias, R.S. Filichkin, S.A. Strauss, S.H. 2006 Divide