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De Yue, André Gosselin, and Yves Desjardins

Photosynthesis and growth of in vitro-cultured strawberry plantlets (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv Kent) were investigated during a 4-week in vitro culture in a rooting medium and a 4-week ex vitro period. The leaves formed in vitro on a medium containing sucrose developed a positive photosynthetic capacity. At transplanting to the ex vitro environment, their photosynthetic rate was 12.76 μmol CO2/m2 per second, which was as high as that of leaves generated and grown in the greenhouse. During the ex vitro period, photosynthetic rates of in vitro-generated leaves decreased and dark respiration rates increased. However, in vitro leaves were photosynthetically active throughout the 4 weeks ex vitro. In the first 2 weeks of the ex vitro period, in vitro-generated leaves had an important contribution to the overall plantlets' photosynthetic capacity.

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Aekaterini N. Martini, Maria Papafotiou, and Stavros N. Vemmos

rooting percentage in a previous study ( Martini and Papafotiou, 2009 ). For acclimatization, plantlets from adult plants or sprouts of burned plants with well-developed roots were transferred ex vitro to 500-mL plastic containers on a mixture of peat

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Jonathan D. Mahoney and Mark H. Brand

and multiplied in vitro were rooted ex vitro. Microshoots were dipped in indole-3-butyric acid rooting hormone (Hormidin 1; OHP Inc., Mainland, PA) and rooted in clear plastic salad trays containing a mix of 1 peat: 1 vermiculite. A completely

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Richard J. Henny, James R. Holm, Jianjun Chen, and Michelle Scheiber

amount, 90 control plants were randomly selected for transfer to the greenhouse (three plants from each of 10 controls for each of the three harvest dates). Ex vitro transfer. Shoots were transferred into 288-celled trays containing Vergro Container Mix A

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Georgia Vlachou, Maria Papafotiou, and Konstantinos F. Bertsouklis

micropropagation could lead to a high proliferation rate like in other Mediterranean native species ( Papafotiou and Martini, 2016 ; Papafotiou et al., 2013 ). Further, the use of seedlings for either in vitro or ex vitro propagation could enhance the higher

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Ying Chen, Xinlu Chen, Fei Hu, Hua Yang, Li Yue, Robert N. Trigiano, and Zong-Ming (Max) Cheng

excised shoots; it produced a high percent of rooting and healthy and the longest roots (3.5 cm) ( Figs. 4A and 5 ). Fig. 4. Effect of IBA and NAA on inducing rooting from shoots and plantlets in ex vitro condition. ( A ) Rooting from shoots at different

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Wei-Ting Tsai and Chien-Young Chu

without support are suggested for the fast and uniform growth of seedlings. It was expected that by liquid culture, the period from seed sowing to ex vitro could be 1.5 months shorter than the traditional solid culture. Literature Cited

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J. Adelberg, M. Kroggel, and J. Toler

Hosta ×hybrid Tratt. `Blue Cadet' and Hosta tokudama Tratt. `Newberry Gold' were micropropagated in shaken liquid culture and on agar media, in conventional vessels and vessels modified for ventilation in vitro. Acclimatization under intermittent mist and growth in an outdoor nursery during the late spring and summer were monitored by dry weight analysis of sample plants every 4 days for a 60-day period (ex vitro growth). Results for `Newberry Gold' were 1) in vitro shoot growth was greater in liquid than agar culture, regardless of vessel; 2) shoots from agar or liquid culture grew at similar rates ex vitro; 3) ex vitro root growth was greater for liquid than agar cultured plants, regardless of vessel type. Results for `Blue Cadet' were 1) in vitro and ex vitro shoot growth was greater in liquid than agar culture regardless of vessel type and 2) ex vitro root growth was greatest for liquid cultured plants from conventional vessels. Ventilated vessels were generally beneficial for agar but not liquid culture. Benefits of liquid culture for micropropagation of Hosta found in vitro are at least maintained and sometimes enhanced during ex vitro growth in the mist bed and nursery.

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Aikaterini N. Martini and Maria Papafotiou

contribution of NaCl to better proliferation and rooting. Finally, various peat and perlite mixtures were examined for ex vitro acclimatization and establishment to develop an efficient micropropagation protocol for commercial use. Materials and Methods Effect

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Yaser Hassan Dewir, Abdulhakim A. Aldubai, Rashid Sultan Al-Obeed, Salah El-Hendawy, Mayada Kadri Seliem, and Khadija Rabeh Al-Harbi

dependent on medium strength and the type and concentration of auxins. Regenerated plantlets of D. ombet were acclimatized to ex vitro conditions ( Fig. 2C and D ), and a 95% survival rate for the plantlets was achieved after 8 weeks. Table 2. Effect of MS