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M. Carmen González-Mas, M. José Llosa, Antonio Quijano, and M. Angeles Forner-Giner

associated with the quantum yield of noncyclic electron transport, was estimated from (F m ′ – F t )/F m ′ ( Genty et al., 1989 ). The fraction of photons absorbed by PSII, which was not used in photochemistry or dissipated in the PSII antenna (%X), was

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Sorkel Kadir, Michael Von Weihe, and Kassim Al-Khatib

The photosystem II reaction center is the most sensitive reaction center in photosynthesis to heat stress ( Wen et al., 2005 ). Heat stress decreases photosynthetic electron transport activity and variable fluorescence and maximum fluorescence (Fv

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Jinhong Yuan, Man Xu, Wei Duan, Peige Fan, and Shaohua Li

for the events of absorption, trapping, electron transport, and dissipation on a RC basis [ABS/RC = (M 0 /Vj)/(Fv/Fm), TR 0 /RC = M 0 /Vj, ET 0 /RC = M 0 /Vj·ψ 0 , DI 0 /RC = (ABS/RC) – (TR 0 /RC)] were calculated as well as quantum efficiencies on an

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Guoting Liang, Junhui Liu, Jingmin Zhang, and Jing Guo

chloroplasts is dissipated through three reciprocally related pathways: photosynthetic electron transport, chlorophyll fluorescence, and heat dissipation ( Hendrickson et al., 2004 ). F V / F M reflects the ability of antenna pigments to absorb and convert

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Xunzhong Zhang and Erik H. Ervin

a corresponding decrease in electron transport and ATP synthesis, ultimately resulting in oxidative damage ( Bjorn, 2004 ; Rao et al., 1996 ). High ultraviolet-B may also affect photosynthesis indirectly by photobleaching and photodegradation of

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Fan Cao, Xinwang Wang, Zhuangzhuang Liu, Yongrong Li, and Fangren Peng

actual production. Proteins related to electron transport. Two proteins related to electron transport were identified in our study. S1 is a protein of cytochromases and S5 is a protein of hemoglobin binding proteins. Cytochrome enzymes and hemoglobin

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Marjorie Reyes-Diaz, Miren Alberdi, and Maria de la Luz Mora

total chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates accompanied by a partial inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport in photosystem II (PSII) in response to Al 3+ have been reported in some species ( Chen et al., 2005a , 2005b ; Chen, 2006

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Claudia Elkins and Marc W. van Iersel

. Growing seedlings at high densities (up to 4000 plants/m 2 ) can make supplemental lighting more cost-effective ( Graper et al., 1989 ; van Iersel, 2017 ). The energy from photons absorbed by photosynthetic pigments can be used for electron transport in

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Toshio Shibuya, Ryosuke Endo, Yuki Kitamura, Yoshiaki Kitaya, and Nobuaki Hayashi

the measuring system, the air temperature was maintained at 30 ± 3 °C, leaf temperature at 28 °C, relative humidity at 50% ± 10%, and CO 2 concentration at 400 μmol·mol −1 . The photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) was then estimated from Ф

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Tessa Pocock

the lumen (ΔpH) during PSN also senses changes in light, regulates electron transport, and modulates nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in PSII ( Foyer et al., 2012 ; Kono and Terashima, 2014 ). The photoprotective xanthophyll cycle is a significant