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Yunmi Park, Seok-Woo Lee, Soon-ho Kwon, and Hae Yun Kwon

this plant that have been developed worldwide ( Ha et al., 2013 ; Lee, 2013 ). The varieties of H. syriacus are categorized into single or double flowers depending on the number of petals and depending on the color patterns on the petals. They are

Open access

Dingmeng Hu, Jingwei Xu, Youji Han, Xingjian Dun, Lihui Wang, and Shengxiang Zhu

≈1200 crabapple varieties, with about 100 commonly supplied in today’s global market. Unfortunately, double-petal varieties of flowering crabapples are relatively scarce ( Fiala, 1994 ). In the past 20 years, only two new double-flower crabapple

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Hsuan Chen, Lan Xue, Tong Li, and Ryan N. Contreras

Resi and to develop appropriate selection methods to optimize simultaneous selection for larger flowers and increased petal numbers. Materials and Methods Plant material. Ten Hibiscus cultivars, including eight double-flower H. syriacus cultivars

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Jiyu Zhang, Min Wang, Zhenghai Mo, Gang Wang, and Zhongren Guo

napus ( Hong et al., 2013 ). Two transcript isoforms of AGAMOUS homologues, PrseAG ( Prunus serrulata AGAMOUS ) from single and PrseAG-1 from double flower Prunus lannesiana , respectively, showed different functions. The transgenic Arabidopsis

Open access

Hsuan Chen and Dennis J. Werner

diversifying landscaping utility ( Roberts et al., 2015 ). Popular traits like leaf color mutations (purple, gold, variegated), double flowers, compact growth, and weeping architecture are found in many current cultivars ( Kidwell-Slak and Pooler, 2018 ). The

Open access

Hsuan Chen, Jason D. Lattier, Kelly Vining, and Ryan N. Contreras

ornamental crop in the United States. In 2014, sales in excess of $20 million were reported ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2016 ). Breeders have improved many ornamental traits in lilacs such as larger flowers, double flowers, and fragrance ( Dadpour et al

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Rosanna Freyre, Adam Moseley, Sandra B. Wilson, and Gary W. Knox

double flowers, development of triploid plants, and use of induced mutations can be used to develop new, non-invasive cultivars ( Ranney, 2004 ). New approaches include using genetic engineering to develop “supersterile” cultivars that are both male- and

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Inmaculada Vila, Ester Sales, Javier Ollero, Jesús Muñoz-Bertomeu, Juan Segura, and Isabel Arrillaga

and long-lasting flowering and its heat, salinity, and drought tolerance. Many cultivars have been selected according to the color of their simple or doubled flowers, and also completely green and variegated cultivars are produced ( Huxley, 1992

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Neil O. Anderson, Peter D. Ascher, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Steven Poppe, Shengrui Yao, Patricia Johnson, Lee Klossner, and Neal Eash

cultivars have decorative double flowers and only the abaxial petal surfaces differ slightly in coloration. While both ‘Lisa’ and MN Sel’n. 90-275-27 have a 7-week short-day flowering response group in greenhouse production, in outdoor container trials under

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Shuyin Liang, Xuan Wu, and David Byrne

count (done in the laboratory) represents the number of normal petals and petaloids (irregular shaped petals). In rose, flower petal number is controlled by a major dominant allele for the double flower gene (Blfo). Therefore, only double