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Stephen N. Wegulo and Miguel Vilchez

season. The powdery mildews are obligate parasites. They overwinter as ascocarps on plant debris or as mycelia in dormant plant tissue. Conidia, ascocarps, and ascospores released from ascocarps are dispersed from infected plants or plant debris by wind

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Stephanie J. Walker, Paul Funk, Israel Joukhadar, Tom Place, Charles Havlik, and Bradley Tonnessen

) ( Fig. 1 ) mechanical harvester equipped with a picking head equivalent to the commercial Yung-Etgar evaluated in earlier field tests. Although there was a negligible amount of fruit on the ground, all fruit and debris on the ground alongside the harvest

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S. Kaan Kurtural, Geoffrey Dervishian, and Robert L. Wample

conventional manual spur pruning with 36 to 40 buds per vine with no further canopy manipulation. Hand labor pass was conducted to tie any loose cordons and remove debris from the trellis. The mechanical prepruning with hand thinning treatment consisted of

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Philip J. Kauth and Hector E. Pérez

or contaminants such as pathogens, weed seeds, debris, and poor quality seed” ( Black et al., 2006 ). Certified seed was defined as “seeds produced under strict seed standards to maintain seeds free of debris and prohibited weed seeds” ( Black et al

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Carlo Mininni, Pietro Santamaria, Hamada M. Abdelrahman, Claudio Cocozza, Teodoro Miano, Francesco Montesano, and Angelo Parente

( Duarte, 1991 ). Every year, mostly in the fall, posidonia leaves senesce and detach off the rhizomes so that, in many areas, very conspicuous wedge-shaped deposits of posidonia debris are beached along vast areas of the coast ranging from a few

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removing only half the leaf area of HD-I, MD-I mimicked HD-I for improving cluster sunlight exposure, reducing cluster weight, berries per cluster, cluster compactness, and floral debris retention, in comparison to no defoliation. MD-I may provide an

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Timothy M. Spann, Luis V. Pozo, Igor Kostenyuk, and Jacqueline K. Burns

contributed to the slow adoption of mechanical harvesting technology, including processor concerns about the quantity of debris mixed with mechanically harvested fruit ( Spann and Danyluk, 2010 ), production manager concerns about the effects of mechanical

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Arthur Villordon, Christopher Clark, Don LaBonte, and Nurit Firon

was WinRHIZO Pro (Version 2009c; Regent Instruments Inc.). Debris removal among scanned images was performed manually using the WinRhizo Pro Edition working mode. Debris consisted mainly of images of sand particles. The length of the AR main axis was

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William B. Miller

that the solution is usually reused many times and potentially over a long period with accumulation of organic matter (peatmoss, plant debris, etc.). In the case of flurprimidol, previous research ( Chand and Lembi, 1994 ) showed the molecule has a half

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Arthur Villordon and Christopher Clark

Instruments, Inc.). Image acquisition parameter was set to “high” accuracy (600 dpi; image size ≈18 MB), whereas analysis precision was set to “high.” Debris removal among scanned images was performed manually using the WinRHIZO Pro Edition working mode