The effects of natural ventilation and CO2 enrichment during the rooting stage on the growth and the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration of in vitro cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plantlets were investigated. In vitro plantlets were established in airtight or ventilated vessels with or without CO2 supplied (≈1200 μg·L-1) through gas permeable films attached to the vessel's cap for 15 days before transplanting ex vitro. Leaves generated in vitro in ventilated vessels had a higher photosynthetic rate than those produced in airtight vessels, which lead to greater leaf expansion and shoot and root dry matter accumulation during in vitro culture and acclimatization. Enhanced photosynthesis in leaves of ventilated plantlets was positively correlated with chlorophyll content. Increasing photosynthetically active radiation from 70 to 200 μmol·m-2·s-1 enhanced the growth of in vitro plantlets under ventilated conditions but it depressed photosynthesis of the leaves grown photomixotrophically with sugar and CO2 enrichment which might be due to the feedback inhibition caused by marked accumulations of sucrose and starch. Higher CO2 levels during in vitro culture enhanced photosynthesis under photoautotrophic conditions, but inhibited it under photomixotrophic conditions. Fifteen days after transplanting ex vitro, high photosynthetic ability and stomatal resistance to transpiratory water loss of ventilated plantlets in vitro had important contributions to rooting and acclimatization. Our findings show that the ventilated culture is effective for accelerating photoautotrophic growth of plantlets by increasing photosynthesis, suggesting that, especially for plantlets growing in vitro without sugar, CO2 enrichment may be necessary to enhance photosynthetic ability.
Michio Kanechi, Masakatsu Ochi, Michiko Abe, Noboru Inagaki, and Susumu Maekawa
Mark W. Farnham and Kent D. Elsey
Resistance of a Brassica oleracea germplasm collection (broccoli, Italica Group; cauliflower, Botrytis Group; and collard and kale, Acephala Group) to silverleaf whitefly (SLW; Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) infestation was evaluated using several measures of insect infestation (including adult vs. nymph counts) taken at plant growth stages ranging from seedling to mature plant. An initial study was conducted in an outdoor screen cage artificially infested with the SLW adults; subsequent field trials relied on natural infestations. The glossy-leaved lines (`Broc3' broccoli, `Green Glaze' collard, and `SC Glaze' collard) had low SLW infestations in cage and field tests. SLW adult counts were less variable than similar comparisons using nymphal counts, although adult and nymph counts were positively and significantly correlated at late plant stages. Based on this study, comparing relative SLW adult populations would be a preferred criterion for identifying B. oleracea resistance to this insect.
Charles F. Forney and Michael A. Jordan
Methanethiol (MT) is a volatile compound responsible for the unpleasant odor evolved when fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) is held under anaerobic conditions. Inductive atmospheres can develop in storage, transportation containers, or modified atmosphere packages, resulting in reduced quality. To determine if related vegetables are capable of producing MT, 12 different vegetables from the genus Brassica were cut into ready-to-eat forms. Fifty-gram samples were sealed in 500-mL glass jars and flushed with N2. After 24 h in the dark at 20 °C, headspace samples from the jars were analyzed for MT and other volatiles. Headspace concentration of MT was greatest in broccoli florets, followed by pak choi (Brassica rapa L., Chinensis group) leaf blades, savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group), broccoflower (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group), and green and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group). Broccoli stems, kale (Brassica oleracea L., Acephala group), Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L., Gemmifera group), pak choi petioles, rutabaga (Brassica napus L., Napobrassica group) root, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group) florets, Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L., Pekinensis group), and kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L., Gongylodes group) tubers produced <3% of the MT produced by broccoli florets. Green tissues appeared to have a greater capacity to produce MT than nongreen tissues. Anaerobic production of CO2 and ethanol did not relate to the vegetable's ability to produce MT. The production of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) were also induced by the anaerobic conditions. Green cabbage produced the greatest concentration of DMDS, followed by savoy cabbage and broccoli florets. Production of DMTS was similar to the pattern observed for MT, but DMDS production was not highly correlated with MT production.
Ghazanfar Ali Shah, Guo Deping, and Zeng Guangwen
Mark W. Farnham
Using anther culture to generate doubled-haploid (DH) homozygous lines for use as parents in F1 hybrid crosses has become a common practice in breeding broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica Group). During anther culture and subsequent embryogenesis and plant regeneration, polyploidization of microspore-derived embryos may not occur or it may occur accompanied by a doubling, tripling, quadrupling, octupling, or irregular polyploidization of the genome. Thus regenerants from the process can be haploids, diploids, triploids, tetraploids, octaploids, or aneuploids. The objectives of this research were to 1) conduct repeat cycles of broccoli anther culture using a group of F1 hybrids as anther donors and develop populations of regenerants; 2) analyze resulting populations using DNA flow cytometry and determine the influence of F1 source on frequency of different ploidy levels among regenerants; and 3) compare seed set in broccoli inbreds developed in a traditional selfing program compared to seed set in DH broccoli derived from anther culture. In two cycles (1994 and 1995) of anther culture, anther-derived populations of regenerants were developed using the F1 hybrids `Marathon', `Everest', `High Sierra', and `Futura' as sources of anthers. In 1994, `Everest', `High Sierra', and `Futura' yielded populations that included 2% to 7% haploids, 53% to 56% diploids, 32% to 38% tetraploids, and 5% to 6% other types. `Marathon'-derived regenerants were 5% haploid, 78% diploid, 15% tetraploid, and 2% other, showing significantly more diploids. In 1995, `Marathon' regenerants again included significantly more diploids and fewer tetraploids than those derived from other F1 sources, confirming that the genotype of the anther source affects the frequency of a particular ploidy level among regenerants derived from culture. In manual self-pollinations of 1994 regenerants, only diploids and rare tetraploids set seed. When plants that set no seed were discounted, seed production following manual self pollinations of 1995 regenerants was not significantly different from that of traditional inbreds derived from the same F1 sources.
Robert J. Dufault
The first objective of this paper is to review and characterize the published research in refereed journals pertaining to the nutritional practices used to grow vegetable transplants. The second objective is to note those studies that indicated a direct relationship between transplant nutritional practices and field performance. The third objective is to suggest some approaches that are needed in future vegetable transplant nutrition research. Even after review of the plethora of available information in journals, it is not possible to summarize the one best way to grow any vegetable transplant simply because of many interacting and confounding factors that moderate the effects of nutritional treatments. It is, however, important to recognize that all these confounding factors must be considered when developing guidelines for producing transplants. After thorough review of this information, it is concluded that transplant nutrition generally has a long term effect on influencing yield potential. Therefore, derivation of a nutritional regime to grow transplants needs to be carefully planned. It is hoped that the information that follows can be used to help guide this process.
Richard Smith, Michael Cahn, Timothy Hartz, Patricia Love, and Barry Farrara
( Lactuca sativa L.), the predominant crop in this region ( Bottoms et al., 2012 ; Breschini and Hartz, 2002 ; Hartz et al., 2000 ; Jackson et al., 1994 ). Less attention has been given to cole crops (broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower), which are
L. Mark Lagrimini, Jill Vaughn, John Finer, Karen Klotz, and Patrick Rubaihayo
Abbreviations: CaMV, cauliflower mosaic virus; POD, peroxidase; TobAnPOD, tobacco anionic peroxidase. 1 Dept. of Horticulture, to whom reprint requests should be addressed. 2 Dept. of Food Science and Technology. 3 Dept. of Agronomy. 4 Dept. of
Aaron Heinrich, Shinji Kawai, and Jim Myers
clubroot-resistant cultivars of broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, brussels sprouts, and napa cabbage ( Diederichsen et al., 2009 ; Piao et al., 2009 ). In field and greenhouse trials ( Adhikari et al., 2012 ; Saude et al., 2012 ; Sharma et al., 2013
Wanmei Jin, Jing Dong, Yuanlei Hu, Zhongping Lin, Xuefeng Xu, and Zhenhai Han
-strength vitamins, 30 g·L −1 sucrose, 6 g·L −1 agar, and 0.2 mg·L −1 IBA. Transformation and regeneration of grape explants. The DREB1b gene was isolated from Arabidopsis and placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in the