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Ross E. Byers and Alson H. Smith Jr.

An analysis of daytime high temperatures for the 10-year period from 1984 to 1993 indicated that, in the 21 days after full bloom (AFB) in 7 of 10 years, there were 3 days or more above 29.5C. In the 15- to 21-day period AFB, when fruit are considered at their optimum diameter (8 to 12 mm) for thinning, only 3 days above 29.5C were recorded. In the 15 to 21 days AFB, the high temperature was only 24C for 7 out of 10 years. Thus, growers would have to spray at temperatures 5.6C degrees lower if they were to choose to spray the warmest 3 days during the 15- to 21-day period when fruit are 8 to 12 mm in diameter. NAA caused thinning of `Golden Delicious' fruit at 8-mm fruit diameter. Tank mixing of one of several pesticides (regulaid or guthion, captan, carzol, imidan, polyram, lorsban, omite, or lannate) had no effect on NAA efficacy. Comparison of identical chemical thinning treatments (carbaryl + Accel + oil) applied to `York' and `Red Delicious' apple trees indicated that more thinning occurred with the PF treatments than at 8 mm. Average 2-day high temperatures at PF were 7.1C higher at PF for the `Red Delicious' experiment and 5.6C higher for the `York' experiment. The higher temperatures at PF could account for the differences in thinning response and not the spray timing. Pollination and fertilization inhibitors caused some fruit thinning at the highest rates and multiple applications. The MYX4801 caused more thinning and more injury to fruit than other materials. Endothall gave good thinning without fruit injury. Wilthin (GWN-6592) did cause some thinning, but fruit injury was a problem in one experiment.

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R.E. Byers, D.H. Carbaugh, and L.D. Combs

Technical grade prohexadione-calcium (93.2% a.i. P-Ca) applied to `Fuji'/M.9 trees in three applications in deionized water reduced shoot growth by 25%, but the addition of (NH4)2SO4 to P-Ca suppressed shoot growth by 47%. If P-Ca was mixed in well water (high in calcium salts), P-Ca did not suppress shoot growth at all. The commercially formulated prohexadione-calcium [Apogee: 27.5% P-Ca + 56.1% (NH4)2SO4 + 16.4% other proprietary additives] + Regulaid in well water (high calcium) was not as effective (reduced growth by 30%) as when additional (NH4)2SO4 was added (reduced growth by 53%), and if CaCl2 (used to control corking) was tank mixed with Apogee + Regulaid, the Ca++ interfered with the growth suppression of P-Ca. If (NH4)2SO4 was added at the same rate as CaCl2 (w/w), the Apogee growth suppression was completely restored (reduced growth by 50%). Choice (a commercial water conditioner that has (NH4)2SO4 in the formulation, among other ingredients) + Li-700, or (NH4)2SO4 + Silwet L-77, or (NH4)2SO4 + Silwet L-77 + Oil were among the most effective adjuvant combinations with Apogee. The addition of ethephon at 270 mg·L-1 improved the growth suppression of Apogee + (NH4)2SO4 + Regulaid. Solubor compromised the effectiveness of Apogee + Regulaid. Adjusting the pH of the Apogee + (NH4)2SO4+ Regulaid spray to either pH = 4 or pH = 9 did not affect efficacy. The combination of Apogee + (NH4)2SO4 + Regulaid caused increased fruit cracking of `Empire' fruit as compared to the control (7%), presumably due to increased absorption of P-Ca. Chemical names used: Prohexadione-calcium (P-Ca, 3-oxido-4-propionyl-5-oxo-3cyclohexenecarboxylate) formulated as BAS-125 (10% P-Ca); Apogee (27.5% P-Ca), or Technical 93.5% P-Ca); Regulaid (polyoxyethylenepolypropoxy-propanol, alkyl 2-ethoxethanol, and dihydroxy propane); Silwet L-77 (polyalkyleneoxide modified heptametyltrisiloxane, silicon surfactant), LI-700 (80%, phosphatidylcholine, methylacetic acid and alkyl polyoxyethylene ether); Superior Oil (Drexel Damoil 70-second delayed dormant spray oil); ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid); Solubor (20.5%, Boron equivalent); captan (N-Trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohenene-1,2-dicarboximide).

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G. Schnabel and C.H. Crisosto

, Greensboro, NC) and phosmet (Imidan 70WSB; Gowan, Yuma, AZ) on 8 Apr.; captan (Captec 4L; Micro Flo, Memphis, TN) on 14 Apr.; captan and phosmet on 25 Apr., 6 May, 18 May, and 4 June; micronized sulfur (Microthiol Disperss 80DF; Ceraxagri, Philadelphia) and

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Matthew D. Stevens, Brent L. Black, John D. Lea-Cox, Ali M. Sadeghi, Jennifer Harman-Fetcho, Emy Pfeil, Peter Downey, Randy Rowland, and Cathleen J. Hapeman

(Quadris Flowable; Syngenta, Greensboro, NC), benomyl (Benlate; DuPont Agricultural Products, Wilmington, DE), captan (Captan 50-WP; Micro Flo, Lakeland, FL), and thiophanate-methyl (Topsin-M WSB; Cerexagri, King of Prussia, PA) were applied to control the

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Gary E. Vallad, Kenneth L. Pernezny, Botond Balogh, Aimin Wen, Jose Francisco L. Figueiredo, Jeffrey B. Jones, Timur Momol, Rosa M. Muchovej, Nikol Havranek, Nadia Abdallah, Steve Olson, and Pamela D. Roberts

®; United Phosphorous, Inc., King of Prussia, PA); captan (Captan® 50WP, 48.9%, N-trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide; Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC); Kasuran® 50WP (5% kasugamycin hydroxide and 45% copper oxychloride; Arysta

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Carlos De la Cuadra, Alexis K. Vidal, and Leví M. Mansur

absorbent paper (9-cm diameter). Seeds were disinfected for 3 min in a solution of Captan ® at 1% (Captan ® 50WP; N -(trichloromethylthio)-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide; Arysta LifeScience, Cary, NC), later rinsed three times and then sown. Three to

Open access

canker threatens sustainable apple production in the maritime climate of western Washington. In a 2-year study, Garton et al. (p. 35) assessed the efficacy of zinc, basic copper sulfate, captan, thiophanate-methyl, and pyraclostrobin + boscalid in

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Atsushi Kono, Akihiko Sato, Bruce Reisch, and Lance Cadle-Davidson

HC, HI, and RH were planted on 26 May 2011, 1 and 2 June 1998, and 3 May 2010, respectively. For HC and RH, a mixture of boscalid (Endura 70WG) and captan (Captan 80WPG) were sprayed on 24 May and a mixture of metrafenone (Vivando 2.5SC), captan

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Matthew D. Stevens, Brent L. Black, John D. Lea-Cox, and Dillon Feuz

–methyl (Topsin-M WSB; Cerexagri) and captan (Captan 50-WP; Micro Flo) were applied together as a tank mix on 13 May 2003. Thiophanate–methyl was applied for management of Botrytis rot, and captan was applied to manage common leaf spot [ Mycosphaerella fragariae

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Angela M. Madeiras, Thomas H. Boyle, and Wesley R. Autio

). Except for Expts. 5 and 6, all seeds were treated one day after sowing with 3α,4,7,7α-tetrahydro-2-[(trichloromethyl) thio]-1 H -isoindole-1,3(2 H )-dione (captan), 50% wettable powder, formulated product at 0.24 mg/100 mL deionized water. Seeds in Expt