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A. Talaie and M. Ghassemi

To determine the most proper bed, time, and wounding factors on the rooting of semi-hard cuttings of olive (Olea europaea), cuttings were selected and research was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture of the Tehran Univ. in Karaj. The required cuttings were taken from healthy and similar mother trees at the Roodbar Research Station. Then, semi-hard cuttings of 15 cm in length and 3 to 5 mm in diameter with four terminal leaves were prepared. Then those prepared cuttings were treated with IBA at 4000 ppm and Captan fungicide at 3000 ppm before planting. This experiment was designed in a factorial with a randomized complete block, with four media bed factors for rooting in seven levels (peatmoss + perlite, sawdust + sand, peatmoss + sand, and perlite, sand, and perlite + sand), the time factor for cutting preparation in four levels (May, August, September, and March), cultivars at two levels (Roghani and Zard Zeitoun), and wounding treatment at two levels (unwounded and wounded); there were three replications (20 cuttings per replicate per each unit). The results indicate that, among the selected beds, perlite with 53% of rooting average yield has the highest and peatmoss + perlite with a rooting average of 43.8% has the lowest. As far as time is concerned, those cuttings prepared in March show the highest rooting average of 69.3%, while those prepared in August show the lowest average of 12.7%. The comparison between the two cultivars shows that Roghani, with 60.4% rooting yield, is preferred to Zard Zeitoun, with 48.2% rooting average. There were no significant differences between wounded and unwounded cuttings with regard to rooting.

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R.E. Byers, D.H. Carbaugh, and L.D. Combs

Technical grade prohexadione-calcium (93.2% a.i. P-Ca) applied to `Fuji'/M.9 trees in three applications in deionized water reduced shoot growth by 25%, but the addition of (NH4)2SO4 to P-Ca suppressed shoot growth by 47%. If P-Ca was mixed in well water (high in calcium salts), P-Ca did not suppress shoot growth at all. The commercially formulated prohexadione-calcium [Apogee: 27.5% P-Ca + 56.1% (NH4)2SO4 + 16.4% other proprietary additives] + Regulaid in well water (high calcium) was not as effective (reduced growth by 30%) as when additional (NH4)2SO4 was added (reduced growth by 53%), and if CaCl2 (used to control corking) was tank mixed with Apogee + Regulaid, the Ca++ interfered with the growth suppression of P-Ca. If (NH4)2SO4 was added at the same rate as CaCl2 (w/w), the Apogee growth suppression was completely restored (reduced growth by 50%). Choice (a commercial water conditioner that has (NH4)2SO4 in the formulation, among other ingredients) + Li-700, or (NH4)2SO4 + Silwet L-77, or (NH4)2SO4 + Silwet L-77 + Oil were among the most effective adjuvant combinations with Apogee. The addition of ethephon at 270 mg·L-1 improved the growth suppression of Apogee + (NH4)2SO4 + Regulaid. Solubor compromised the effectiveness of Apogee + Regulaid. Adjusting the pH of the Apogee + (NH4)2SO4+ Regulaid spray to either pH = 4 or pH = 9 did not affect efficacy. The combination of Apogee + (NH4)2SO4 + Regulaid caused increased fruit cracking of `Empire' fruit as compared to the control (7%), presumably due to increased absorption of P-Ca. Chemical names used: Prohexadione-calcium (P-Ca, 3-oxido-4-propionyl-5-oxo-3cyclohexenecarboxylate) formulated as BAS-125 (10% P-Ca); Apogee (27.5% P-Ca), or Technical 93.5% P-Ca); Regulaid (polyoxyethylenepolypropoxy-propanol, alkyl 2-ethoxethanol, and dihydroxy propane); Silwet L-77 (polyalkyleneoxide modified heptametyltrisiloxane, silicon surfactant), LI-700 (80%, phosphatidylcholine, methylacetic acid and alkyl polyoxyethylene ether); Superior Oil (Drexel Damoil 70-second delayed dormant spray oil); ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid); Solubor (20.5%, Boron equivalent); captan (N-Trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohenene-1,2-dicarboximide).

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G. Schnabel and C.H. Crisosto

, Greensboro, NC) and phosmet (Imidan 70WSB; Gowan, Yuma, AZ) on 8 Apr.; captan (Captec 4L; Micro Flo, Memphis, TN) on 14 Apr.; captan and phosmet on 25 Apr., 6 May, 18 May, and 4 June; micronized sulfur (Microthiol Disperss 80DF; Ceraxagri, Philadelphia) and

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Matthew D. Stevens, Brent L. Black, John D. Lea-Cox, Ali M. Sadeghi, Jennifer Harman-Fetcho, Emy Pfeil, Peter Downey, Randy Rowland, and Cathleen J. Hapeman

(Quadris Flowable; Syngenta, Greensboro, NC), benomyl (Benlate; DuPont Agricultural Products, Wilmington, DE), captan (Captan 50-WP; Micro Flo, Lakeland, FL), and thiophanate-methyl (Topsin-M WSB; Cerexagri, King of Prussia, PA) were applied to control the

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Gary E. Vallad, Kenneth L. Pernezny, Botond Balogh, Aimin Wen, Jose Francisco L. Figueiredo, Jeffrey B. Jones, Timur Momol, Rosa M. Muchovej, Nikol Havranek, Nadia Abdallah, Steve Olson, and Pamela D. Roberts

®; United Phosphorous, Inc., King of Prussia, PA); captan (Captan® 50WP, 48.9%, N-trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide; Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC); Kasuran® 50WP (5% kasugamycin hydroxide and 45% copper oxychloride; Arysta

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Carlos De la Cuadra, Alexis K. Vidal, and Leví M. Mansur

absorbent paper (9-cm diameter). Seeds were disinfected for 3 min in a solution of Captan ® at 1% (Captan ® 50WP; N -(trichloromethylthio)-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide; Arysta LifeScience, Cary, NC), later rinsed three times and then sown. Three to

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Atsushi Kono, Akihiko Sato, Bruce Reisch, and Lance Cadle-Davidson

HC, HI, and RH were planted on 26 May 2011, 1 and 2 June 1998, and 3 May 2010, respectively. For HC and RH, a mixture of boscalid (Endura 70WG) and captan (Captan 80WPG) were sprayed on 24 May and a mixture of metrafenone (Vivando 2.5SC), captan

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canker threatens sustainable apple production in the maritime climate of western Washington. In a 2-year study, Garton et al. (p. 35) assessed the efficacy of zinc, basic copper sulfate, captan, thiophanate-methyl, and pyraclostrobin + boscalid in

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Matthew D. Stevens, Brent L. Black, John D. Lea-Cox, and Dillon Feuz

–methyl (Topsin-M WSB; Cerexagri) and captan (Captan 50-WP; Micro Flo) were applied together as a tank mix on 13 May 2003. Thiophanate–methyl was applied for management of Botrytis rot, and captan was applied to manage common leaf spot [ Mycosphaerella fragariae

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Angela M. Madeiras, Thomas H. Boyle, and Wesley R. Autio

). Except for Expts. 5 and 6, all seeds were treated one day after sowing with 3α,4,7,7α-tetrahydro-2-[(trichloromethyl) thio]-1 H -isoindole-1,3(2 H )-dione (captan), 50% wettable powder, formulated product at 0.24 mg/100 mL deionized water. Seeds in Expt