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Thomas A. Obreza and Jerry B. Sartain

best management practices (BMPs) that are being implemented to minimize off-site nutrient loss are summarized. Second, alternative fertilizer sources and methods of application that have been shown to improve NUE are explored. Finally, high

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Teresa Olczyk, Juanita Popenoe, Ed Skvarch, and Alejandro Bolques

). Research is underway at University of Florida to determine the economic impact of best management practices (BMPs) and water and fertilizer restrictions. Local governments are not waiting for research and are instituting restrictions, such as Sarasota and

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Eric B. Brennan

problem and improve groundwater quality have been proposed, including regulations to reduce nitrogen (N) fertilizer use (i.e., fertilizer tax, cap, and trade programs) ( Medellin-Azuara et al., 2013 ) and best management practices (i.e., using appropriate

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Tyler C. Hoskins, James S. Owen Jr., and Alex X. Niemiera

helping growers to comply with current or future regulatory standards such as the total maximum daily load limits for agrichemical contributions to the Chesapeake Bay watershed ( Majsztrik and Lea-Cox, 2013 ). A set of best management practices (BMPs

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall, and Joshua Knight

nature of production or manufacturing practices ( Boston Consulting Group, 2009 ; Rankin et al., 2011 ). For greenhouse growers, sustainable production means applying best management practices to enhance plant quality and reduce negative environmental

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Laura A. Warner, Amanda D. Ali, and Anil Kumar Chaudhary

used a single statement to allow participants to indicate how likely or unlikely they were to engage in five irrigation and four fertilizer behaviors in the future. We developed the statements from the common best management practices recommended by

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Meredith V. Melendez, Joseph R. Heckman, Stephanie Murphy, and Frank D’Amico

in lettuce. This information has been used to recommend best practices for farms using copper-based fungicides. Collectively, the information gathered and current best management practices can assist growers in making more informed decisions about

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S.B. Sterrett, H.E. Hohlt, and C.P. Savage Jr.

Off-site movement of sediment, nutrient and agricultural chemicals from plasticulture production of green-pack tomatoes on water quality is a serious environmental concern, particularly for the clam aquaculture industry of eastern Virginia. Thus, the development of ecologically sound, economically sustainable cultural management strategies for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production is needed. Two plantings were made within each of the three tomato harvest seasons [summer, bridge (late summer) and fall] in 1998 and 1999 (one summer crop in 1999). Between-bed treatments included clean culture or pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum(L.) R. Br.] sown at bed establishment. On-bed treatments included standard plasticulture with fumigation on a 76-cm-wide bed (std), plasticulture without fumigation on a 76-cm-wide bed (std-fum), plasticulture on a 61-cmbed with fumigation (narrow) and organic mulch [wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) in 1998; desiccated hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) in 1999]. Total and marketable yields for the three plasticulture on-bed treatments (std, std-fum and narrow) were similar in 1998 and 1999. Yield was suppressed for the organic mulch on-bed treatments in all but the bridge plantings in 1999. Improved yield with plasticulture treatments and high market price for the summer crop in 1998 resulted in elevated crop value and return to land and management (return) compared to that of organic mulch. The return for later plantings was low, but positive. Return was negative for both bridge and the first fall crops in organic mulch in 1998. Low yields in all treatments and low prices in 1999 resulted in negative to negligible return for on-bed treatments in all but the summer planting using plasticulture. Return was consistently lower with organic mulch compared to plasticulture for the high value summer crop in Virginia with between-bed millet in 1998 and with or without millet in 1999. The use of organic mulch on the beds in this study was not economically feasible for the high value summer crops. Adjustments (desiccation of cover, control of weeds) in cultural management of the between-bed management strategy are needed before large-scale commercial implementation will occur.

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Joyce G. Latimer, Reuben B. Beverly, Carol D. Robacker, Orville M. Lindstrom, S. Kristine Braman, Ronald D. Oetting, Denise L. Olson, Paul A. Thomas, Jerry T. Walker, Beverly Sparks, John M. Ruter, Wojciech Florkowski, Melvin P. Garber, and William G. Hudson

Optimizing growing conditions and, thereby, plant growth reduces the susceptibility of plants to many disease and insect pest problems. Educating lawn or landscape management professionals and homeowners about plant health management reduces the need for chemical intervention. Pesticides combined with N and P fertilizers contribute to water pollution problems in urban areas; thus, it is important to manage the amount, timing, and placement of chemicals and fertilizers. To educate consumers applying pesticides and fertilizers in residential gardens, we must educate the sales representatives and others who interact most closely with consumers. Evidence suggests that knowledge about the effects of chemicals is limited and that warning labels are not read or are ignored. Integrated pest management (IPM) offers alternatives to conventional chemical treatments, but such methods are not used commonly because of their relatively high cost and their uncertain impact on pests. Pest detection methods and using pest-resistant plants in landscapes are simple and, in many cases, readily available approaches to reducing the dependence on chemical use. Research on effective, low-cost IPM methods is essential if chemical use in landscape management is to decrease. Current impediments to reducing the pollution potential of chemicals used in the landscape include the limited number of easily implemented, reliable, and cost-effective alternative pest control methods; underfunding of research on development of alternative pest control measures; limited knowledge of commercial operators, chemical and nursery sales representatives, landscape architects, and the general public concerning available alternatives; reluctance of the nursery industry to produce, and of the landscape architects to specify the use of, pest-resistant plant materials; lack of economic or regulatory incentive for professionals to implement alternatives; inadequate funding for education on the benefits of decreased chemical use; and the necessity of changing consumer definition of unacceptable plant damage. We need to teach homeowners and professionals how to manage irrigation to optimize plant growth; use sound IPM practices for reducing disease, weed, and insect problems; and minimize pollution hazards from fertilizers and pesticides.

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Luther C. Carson and Monica Ozores-Hampton

effect on tree growth Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 34 137 142 10.2136/sssaj1970.03615995003400010037x Bartnick, B. Hochmuth, G. Hornsby, J. Simonne, E. 2005 Water quality/quantity best management practices for Florida vegetable and agronomic crops. 7 Aug. 2013