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Joseph Krahe and Benjamin Campbell

time) of their workforce could result in major cost reductions for a firm if efficiencies can be gained. As noted by Charles Grinnell, chief operating officer of Harvest Automation (Billerica, MA), technologies will most likely be adopted based on “how

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Surveyed about Automation Technologies Tree fruit growers in the Pacific northwestern and eastern U.S. were surveyed for their opinions on automated production technologies for specialty crops. Ellis et al. (p. 1043) report grower concerns about equipment

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Samir C. Debnath

dissolved oxygen) ( Paek et al., 2005 ). The use of large-scale liquid cultures and automation has the potential to resolve the manual handling of the various stages of micropropagation. Bioreactor systems have been introduced for mass propagation of

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Meijun Zhang, Duanduan Zhao, Zengqiang Ma, Xuedong Li, and Yulan Xiao

Automation in plant tissue culture. General introduction and overview 1 18 Aitken-Christie J. Kozai T. Smith M.A.L. Automation and environmental control in plant tissue culture Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht, The Netherlands Anderson, J.M. Chow, W

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Michael D. Dukes, Lincoln Zotarelli, and Kelly T. Morgan

.g., Smajstrla and Koo, 1986 ), tensiometer-based automatic control is not practiced in Florida vegetable or citrus production and use of tensiometers for manual irrigation is limited. The first attempts at irrigation automation used switching tensiometers that

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Yi-Chen Chen, Wei-Chun Chang, San-Tai Wang, and Shu-I Lin

) has enabled mechanization and automation. As the degree of mechanization increases, the popularity of grafting is expected to increase in the future. In this study, grafting ‘K-Y cross’ cabbage on ‘Jie Lan’ rootstock resulted in better head quality

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applied to the base of stem cuttings using a manual dip in a concentrated liquid or powder formulation. To improve efficiency, adapt to automation, and reduce chemical concentrations in commercial cutting propagation, Blythe et al. (p. 479) investigated

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Maria T. Ariza, Juan J. Medina, Luis Miranda, José A. Gómez-Mora, Berta De Los Santos, Antonieta de Cal, Elsa Martínez-Ferri, Lucía Cervantes, Rosalía Villalba, and Carmen Soria

. Becerril, M. López-Aranda, J.M. Melgarejo, P. 2009 Evaluation of resistance of several strawberry selections against main fungal pathogens Acta Hort. 842 211 214 Slinkard, K. Singleton, V.L. 1977 Total phenol analysis: Automation and comparison with manual

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systems facilitate automation and can reduce labor costs. High initial capital costs and the potential spread of pathogens are known disadvantages. Ferrarezi et al. (p. 262) review the history, advantages, challenges, and future prospects of

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Olya Rysin and Frank J. Louws

facilities ( Kubota et al., 2008 ; Rivard et al., 2010b ), and may discourage potential users ( Barrett et al., 2012 ). With further developments in rootstock breeding, grafting techniques, and automation, future reductions in transplant prices are possible