During a 30-year career of research, extension, and teaching in tropical fruit production, I participated frequently in international agricultural activities in countries of Central America, South America, and the Caribbean region. In 1988, I retired from the Univ. of Florida to begin a “second career” as a freelance consultant in tropical fruit production and crop diversification, working for a variety of governmental and private organizations. This presentation contains suggestions for horticultural scientists who wish to become involved in consulting in international agriculture. First, decide the kind of work you wish to do and what your area of specialization will be. Choose work for which you have enthusiasm. Get training in basic as well as applied science. It is good to have a “day job,” at least at first, as you establish a reputation in your specialty. Become proficient in the languages of the regions where you wish to work; also carefully study the cultures. When you participate in an international project, work hard and prepare good reports of your accomplishments. As your career progresses, consider carefully whether or not you will become a full-time consultant. It is a demanding way to make a living, but it can also give much satisfaction and greater independence than one finds in many other kinds of work.
Carl W. Campbell
Arlie A. Powell, Roger Getz, and Eugene H. Simpson III
An agricultural weather program has been developed in Alabama and is available on the ACENET computer network of the Alabama Cooperative Extension Service (ACES). This program involves the coordinated efforts of the National Weather Service (NWS), ACES and grower organizations. The program began in March 1987 and has been upgraded several times. Hardware now being used includes a Sun Microsystem SPARC station by NWS and a Sun Microsystems Server Model 4/280 by ACES. Existing and experimental NWS forecast products are disseminated to each of Alabama's 67 county agents offices (CEAs) and to local producers using ACES' computer network. A comprehensive selection of climate and weather related information is available to ACES staff including a widely used freeze alert program. Very detailed freeze forecasts and related information is available to users hourly, 7 days a week. A specialist prepared commentary further enhances use of information during each freeze event. Considerable cost savings have been realized by producers. A pilot program is being initiated in 1991 to incorporate data from several real time weather stations into the system.
Richard R. Harwood
Our farm operations will face an array of challenges over the next decade that are increasing both in scope and intensity. Global markets, global supply, competition for water, land costs driven by the value of non-agricultural use, complexity of regulation, and consumer concern over what they perceive to be safe food are among the many challenges to farm enterprise sustainability. We will have to “contain” our soil, nutrients, crop and animal residues and production inputs within our field boundaries and in the upper layers of soil. We must do all of this while increasing productivity (achieving ever-higher nutrient and crop residue flow) and being cost-competitive. Many exciting advances are being made in engineering as well as in crop genetics. The most far-reaching, however, will be the contributions that will come from other parts of the biological revolution. The science of production ecology is helping us to better understand the myriad of biological and biogeochemical processes that we deal with daily. We are moving toward management of the genetics of pest populations. We will purposefully manage the diversity and amounts of crop residues in our fields which, in turn will control the populations of plants and animals in our soil. We will manipulate the incorporation and release of nutrients from organic fractions in our soil for containment and nutrient recycling. Our nutrient and chemical inputs will be targeted and largely supplemental rather than the direct mainstay of our production. If our production is to be a sustainable part of the landscape we must be seen to provide a high level and quality of hydrological and biodiversity services as part of our management of green space. The more advanced farms have pieces of this future in place now. Numerous examples will be presented from current research, focusing heavily on crop/soil interactions.
Jorge Arboleya and Ernesto Restaino
We thank Gerardo Bergamin from Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Carlos Alemany, National Institute of Agriculture Technology Estación Agropecuaria Alto Valle, Argentina; Francisco Roberto Caporal Technical Assistantce and Rural Extension Enterprise
D. Michael Glenn
films with a residue density of 1 to 4 g·m −2 leaf area have been evaluated in a range of crops and agricultural environments. The particle film is a general insect repellant resulting from the change in the plant’s leaf/fruit texture but also because
The World Wide Web accessed over the Internet has dramatically increased information communication in the scientific community, including horticulture and all research supported by the Agricultural Experiment Station as funded by the states and U
While enrollment is dropping in many commodity-based curriculums, one key program area of interest to many students is sustainable agriculture. Some land-grant universities are initiating undergraduate and graduate programs, or concentrations in Sustainable Agriculture, to meet this student demand. Many smaller colleges (for example, Delaware Valley College, Slippery Rock Univ., and Warren Wilson College) are also offering a focus in this area as well. These programs often include an experiential learning component through internships and other hands-on activities. Examples of some of the courses being offered include Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture, Agricultural Ecosystems, Sustainable Agriculture Processes in Plant Horticulture and Animal Husbandry, and Fertility Considerations in Regenerative Agriculture. In this presentation, I summarize ongoing programs nationwide, and discuss the impact these programs are having on student enrollment.
C.J. Catanzaro, C.L. Fenderson, and R.J. Sauve
The Dept. of Agricultural Sciences currently offers degrees at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Undergraduate programs in Plant Science, Animal Science, and Rural Development were consolidated within the Dept. of Agricultural Sciences in the late 1980s due to the declining number of graduates. However, no personnel turnover or course changes occurred due to consolidation. Enrollment at the undergraduate level has doubled within the past 5 years. Student enrollment for Fall 1995 included 127 undergraduates and 31 graduate students. Graduation figures projected for 1995–96 include 26 undergraduates and 8 graduate students. Horticulture and Agronomy are now two of the concentrations available for the BS degree in Agricultural Sciences, and Plant Science is an option for the MS degree in Agricultural Sciences. Presently in the plant sciences there are approximately 30 undergraduates and 20 MS students. Faculty and professional staff affiliated with the Cooperative Agricultural Research Program are encouraged to submit teaching proposals to the 1890 Institution Capacity Building Grants Program, a USDA-funded competitive program for the agricultural sciences. Awards enable grantee institutions to attract more minority students into the agricultural sciences, expand institutional linkages, and strengthen education in targeted need areas. The Grants Program supports teaching projects related to curricula design, materials development, and faculty and student enhancement. Current teaching grants address graduate and undergraduate education in molecular biology and undergraduate education in soil sciences.
Across the United States, farm demographics and the way people access information are changing. In the last Census of Agriculture from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agriculture Statistic Service (USDA-NASS), the number of female farm
Donald R. Davis
mineral depletion or changes in agricultural practices. Another evidence against the generality of the soil–mineral depletion hypotheses is their finding that median R values are less than 1 for protein, P, and ash [mostly potassium (K)] ( Fig. 3 ) despite