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S. M. Olson and Salvadore J. Locascio

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of transplant age and container size on `Green Duke' broccoli production. Transplant ages (weeks from seeding) were 3, 4, and 5 weeks in Exp. A, 4, 5, and 6 weeks in Exps. B and D and 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks in Exp. C. Cell sizes were 2.0 cm (width) × 3.2 cm deep (2.0 cm), 2.5 cm × 7.2 cm deep (2.5 cm), and 3.8 cm × 6.4 cm deep (3.8 cm) with each transplant age. With the smallest container size (2.0 cm), yields were significantly lower in 3 of 4 experiments as compared to the 3.8 cm container size. In 2 of 4 experiments, yields were lower with the 2 cm size as compared to the 2.8 cm container size. In Exps. A and B transplant age did not influence yield, but use of the oldest transplants in Exp. C resulted in reduced yields while use of the oldest transplants in Exp. D resulted in the highest yields Generally, head weights followed similar patterns to the yields.

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John R. Clark and James N. Moore

Yield and average berry weight were measured for first year fruiting (on semi-erect canes) and second year fruiting (erect canes) to compare harvest age effect for erect blackberries established from root cuttings. cultivars were `Cheyenne', `Choctaw', `Navaho' and `Shawnee' and 4 plantings were included in the comparison. One of the four plantings had an average yield of 27% more in the first year as compared to the second year. The other plantings had higher yields in the second year as compared to the first ranging up to a 100% increase. Yield was 23% higher for the second year when all plantings were averaged. Average yield increase by cultivar in the second year compared to the first was: 'Choctaw' 37%, 'Cheyenne' 27%, 'Navaho' 22% and 'Shawnee' 20%. Berry weight was not affected by harvest age except in one planting, where average weight was higher for first year fruiting.

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Deborah A. Tolman, Alexander X. Niemiera, and Robert D. Wright

Seedlings of 30-, 35, 40-, -45, and 50-day-old marigold (Tagetes erecta Big. `Inca Gold') in 500-ml plastic pots containing a 1 peat: 1 perlite (v/v) medium were treated with several fertilizer levels (N at 20, 50, 80, and 110 mg·liter-1); solution nutrient levels in the medium were determined 6 hours later. Older/larger container-grown plants absorbed more N, P, and K from the medium solution than younger/smaller plants. Also, older plants (>40 days) absorbed at least 88% of the solution N regardless of N treatment. Nitrogen absorption, regardless of plant age, increased as N application rates increased. The latter result implies that even though total N absorption increases with plant age/size, nutrient levels in the medium solution for optimal growth and nutrient uptake may be similar regardless of plant size.

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H.C. Wien and A.D. Turner

In a preliminary experiment, tomatoes were induced to catface by a temperature treatment of 2 weeks at 16/10C (day/night), starting at the 6-leaf stage. Fruits of the second and third, but not the first cluster showed catface symptoms. If catfacing induction could be further delayed by growing transplants in a non-inducing environment until most flower primordia have been initiated, plants might escape the disorder. In 2 field trials, plants were greenhouse-grown for 33, 47, or 61 days, and induced to catface by a GA3 foliar spray (15 ul·1-1) at transplanting. Catfacing was significantly increased by GA, sprays (23 vs 11% of all fruits in 1989, 22 vs 8% in 1990). In both years, there was a highly significant interaction between plant age and catfacing incidence, with high levels for young and medium-aged, but lower levels for old GA-treated transplants. Marketable yields were highest for youngest and medium-aged plants in 1989 and 1990, respectively. Old plants were checked in growth after transplanting and produced lowest yields in both years. Avoiding catfacing by use of old transplants thus has doubtful practical value.

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Warren Roberts, Jim Duthie, and Wes Watkins

Wet soils can prevent growers from transplanting tomatoes at the ideal size and age. Experiments were conducted to determine the length of time that transplants can be held before yield is reduced Also, different techniques for holding and hardening plants were compared. Seven ages of `Sunny' tomato plants (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 weeks old at transplanting) were either grown normally, grown with limited water, or grown with limited fertilizer. Plants were grown in trays containing 128 cells, with each cell approximately 3.2 by 3.2 by 11 cm. Water was applied for 3 minutes either once a day or twice a day. Fertilizer (20-20-20) was applied either once a week or once during the entire seedling production period. Transplants were later planted in the field. The experiment was conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1993. The yield response to transplant age was quadratic, with maximum yield occurring with 6, 7, and 8 week old transplants. In general, the greatest yield occurred when water was withheld, and the lowest yield occurred when fertilizer was withheld from the transplants

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S. K. O’Hair

Abstract

Cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz) plants of ‘CMC-40’ and ‘CMC-92’ were grown over a 3-year period with annual harvests at the end of each growing season. Root tissues were divided into peel (secondary phloem with the thin cork tissue layer removed) and up to three parenchymatous tissue age groups. Up to 40% of the starch concentration can be deposited in root parenchymatous tissue. Root starch is permanently removed from parenchymatous tissue of older roots, probably in association with new foliage growth at the start of a new growing season. As a result of periods of little or no growth, visible annual growth rings develop in the root, separating each season’s major root enlargement periods. Genetic differences in starch content were noted among the tissues between ‘CMC-40’ and ‘CMC-92’. However, both demonstrated similar loss of starch from older tissue.

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Gale McGranahan and Harold I. Forde

Abstract

Data on 15 traits collected from 30 walnut selections were analyzed for changes in relation to both clone and rootstock age. Data collection began at first flowering (age 3 or 4) and continued annually for up to 28 years on each clone. Significant correlations were found between seasonal timing of the expression of phenological traits and clone age. The general trend was towards earlier leafing, bloom, and time of nut maturity as the clone aged. Correlations with rootstock age were lower than with clone age for phenological traits. Shell and kernel trait expression was more highly correlated with rootstock age than clone age, suggesting that changes may be due to vigor and other effects of grafting rather than aging per se. Estimates of the age of stabilization for phenological traits ranged between 9 and 18 years from germination. It is suggested that changes in leafing, bloom, and nut maturity dates be considered prior to commercial release of walnut cultivars.

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Michael W. Smith and William D. Goff

buds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate selected treatments for pecan propagation by patch budding and methods to successfully force patch buds into growth. Studies addressed 1) budwood age and rootstock age at the budding site, 2

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, and Bahman Shafii

water use, tree growth, yield, and harvest-time fruit quality attributes in ‘Pacific Gala’ apple at different ages of tree (different years of tree canopy maturity) during 2004–07. Materials and Methods Orchard establishment The experimental orchard was

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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Hee-Geun Park, Ki-Cheol Son, Dae-Sik Kim, and Wang-Lok Lee

The elderly population aged over 65 years is the fastest growing group worldwide, exceeding 10% of the total population in more than 60 countries ( Liu and Li, 2015 ). Ageing is often accompanied by chronic diseases and an increased susceptibility