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Parthiba M. Balasubramanian, Albert Vandenberg, and Pierre J. Hucl

Suboptimal seedbed temperatures in early spring limit common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedling emergence. This field study evaluated emergence of cultivated and wild common bean when subjected to suboptimal seedbed temperature. One hundred and eighty common bean accessions and three control cultivars were planted on 3 May at Saskatoon, Sask., in 2000 and 2001. Percent emergence, cumulative thermal units to 50% anthesis and to 50% maturity, and seed yield were determined. The seedbed temperature during the 2 weeks after planting ranged between 1 and 18 °C in 2000, and 5 and 17 °C in 2001. At 20 days after planting, emergence in accession G8823 was significantly greater than the control cultivars in 2000. `CDC Nighthawk', a black bean control cultivar was comparable in emergence to G8823 at 30 days after planting. A similar trend was observed in 2001 with the exception that emergence was greater at 30, 40, and 50 days after planting due to a warmer seedbed. `CDC Nighthawk' was among the earliest to mature, although it required a significantly higher cumulative thermal unit to anthesis compared to most other accessions. G8823 could serve as a parent to develop elite bean cultivars with emergence at suboptimal seedbed temperatures.

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Mundaya N. Jithesh, Owen S.D. Wally, Iain Manfield, Alan T. Critchley, David Hiltz, and Balakrishnan Prithiviraj

Plants are sessile organisms that are faced with a range of abiotic stresses throughout their lifespan, which are increasing on a global scale. High salinity is one of the major abiotic stress factors that significantly reduce crop yield and

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Nancy Ruiz-Lau, Fátima Medina-Lara, Yereni Minero-García, Enid Zamudio-Moreno, Adolfo Guzmán-Antonio, Ileana Echevarría-Machado, and Manuel Martínez-Estévez

a result of competition between the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids and other phenylpropanoid metabolites. The goal of this research was to evaluate the susceptibility of the Habanero pepper to water deficit stress and the effect of this abiotic stress

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Nydia Celis, Donald L. Suarez, Laosheng Wu, Rui Li, Mary Lu Arpaia, and Peggy Mauk

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is one of the most salt-sensitive crops and one of the highest value crops per acre. In the United States, avocados are grown primarily in California, in regions experiencing both scarcity of freshwater and salinization of available water supplies. Thus, our objectives were to evaluate avocado rootstocks for salt tolerance and evaluate the relationship between leaf ion concentrations, trunk diameter, leaf burn, and fruit yield. Our field experiment evaluated the salt tolerance of the Hass scion grafted onto 13 different avocado rootstocks using the Brokaw clonal rootstock technique. The experiment consisted of 156 trees arranged in a randomized complete block design with six replications of each saline [electrical conductivity (EC) = 1.5 dS·m–1, Cl = 4.94 mmol·L–1] and nonsaline (EC= 0.65 dS·m–1, Cl = 0.73 mmol·L–1) irrigation water treatment. We collected soil samples and leaves, then analyzed them for major ions. The rootstocks R0.06, R0.07, PP14, and R0.17, which had high concentrations of Cl and Na in the leaves, were the least salt tolerant, with 100% mortality in the rows irrigated with saline water for 23 months. The rootstocks R0.05, PP40, R0.18, and Dusa, which had low concentrations of Cl ions in the fully expanded leaves, were least affected by salinity, and these rootstocks exhibited the greatest yields, largest trunk diameters, and greatest survival percentages in the saline treatment. Yield and growth parameters correlated well with leaf Cl concentration, but not Na, indicating that salt damage in avocado is primarily a result of Cl ion toxicity. Under arid inland environments, no variety performed satisfactorily when irrigated with an EC = 1.5 dS·m–1 water (Cl = 4.94 mmol·L–1). However, the more tolerant varieties survived at soil salinity levels that would apparently be fatal to varieties reported earlier in the literature.

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Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, and Donald J. Huber

Vegetable grafting, an effective approach to control soilborne diseases and improve abiotic stress tolerance, has been the subject of increased research in the United States ( Kubota et al., 2008 ). Improved crop yield is often reported in grafted

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David H. Suchoff, Christopher C. Gunter, and Frank J. Louws

numerous economically significant soilborne diseases ( Kubota et al., 2008 ; Kunwar et al., 2015 ; Lee and Oda, 2002 ; Louws et al., 2010 ). In addition, certain rootstocks can improve tolerance to abiotic stress such as cold soils, salinity, drought

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En-chao Liu, Li-fang Niu, Yang Yi, Li-mei Wang, You-wei Ai, Yun Zhao, Hong-xun Wang, and Ting Min

abiotic stress, including cold and heat stress ( Francesco et al., 2013 ; Phukan et al., 2017 ), and especially hypoxia stress ( Giordano, 2005 ; Yang et al., 2018 ). In fruits and vegetables, ERF genes are key targets for investigating the

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Holly A. Little, Rebecca Grumet, and James F. Hancock

and biotic stresses ( Abeles et al., 1992 ). Thus, altering ethylene signaling for a characteristic such as increased flower longevity may, in turn, result in secondary changes in abiotic stress responses or disease resistance. We discuss approaches

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Claire Woodward, Lee Hansen, Fleur Beckwith, Regina S. Redman, and Rusty J. Rodriguez

capable of sensing and responding to abiotic stresses such as salt, heat, and drought, but few plants are able to adapt and survive in habitats imposing these stresses ( Perelman et al., 2007 ; Stout and Al-Niemi, 2002 ). The modern evolutionary synthesis

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Yeh-Jin Ahn and Na-Hyun Song

All living organisms synthesize a group of proteins called heat shock proteins (HSPs) when exposed to elevated temperatures or other abiotic stresses such as cold, salinity, drought, oxidation, and heavy metals ( Vierling, 1991 ). These proteins are